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Health Science

CPH 2712 Community and Public Health II: Preventive Medicine & Social Determinants of Health

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CPH 2712: Community and Public Health II: Preventive Medicine & Social Determinants of Health


Prerequisites: CPH 2711 


Course Description:  This course provides an opportunity for students to delve further into key topics including social inequalities and their potential impact on health, with emphasis on marginalized and stigmatized populations; the role of resource allocation in health care; public health programming and the role of the State in public health; the health care system as a social institution; and how the health care system interfaces with populations, communities, and individuals through key decision making processes and communications.


Required Textbook and Materials: UoPeople courses use open educational resources (OER) and other materials specifically donated to the University with free permissions for educational use. Therefore, students are not required to purchase any textbooks or sign up for any websites that have a cost associated with them. The main required textbooks for this course are listed below, and can be readily accessed using the provided links. There may be additional required/recommended readings, supplemental materials, or other resources and websites necessary for lessons; these will be provided for you in the course's General Information and Forums area, and throughout the term via the weekly course Unit areas and the Learning Guides.

  • This course does not contain a main textbook; resources to all required reading will be provided in the course Learning Guide for each week.

Some of the course materials can be found in this archive.


Software Requirements/Installation: No special requirements.


Learning Objectives and Outcomes:

By the end of this course students will be able to:

  1. Understand the basic underpinnings of social inequities, including the identification of vulnerable and stigmatized sub-populations, and the interaction with health.
  2. Describe the role of the State (Country) in Public Health.
  3. Discuss and summarize the roles of Public Health, and the Health Care Systems in addressing health, disease, and illness in the community and population levels.

Course Schedule and Topics: This course will cover the following topics in eight learning sessions, with one Unit per week. The Final Exam will take place during Week/Unit 9 (UoPeople time).

Week 1: Unit 1 - Sociological Perspectives of Health, Public Health, and Health Care

Week 2: Unit 2 - Social Inequities in Health within and between Countries

Week 3: Unit 3 - Vulnerable Populations, Stigma, and Health Outcomes

Week 4: Unit 4 - Etiology of Disease: Introduction to Epidemiology

Week 5: Unit 5 - Health Information and Health Analysis

Week 6: Unit 6 - Surveillance and Control of Risks and Threats

Week 7: Unit 7 - Introduction to Health Economics

Week 8: Unit 8 - Public Health Strategy Development

Week 9: Unit 9 - Course Review and Final Exam


Learning Guide: The following is an outline of how this course will be conducted, with suggested best practices for students.

Unit 1: Sociological Perspectives of Health, Public Health, and Health Care

  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
  • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
  • Take the Self-Quiz

Reading Assignment


Some or all of this weeks reading come from an open resource textbook called Health knowledge, which was designed to support a diploma program in Public Health.  Though there are additional learning tools such as ppt slides, and exam preparation assignments, please note that you will not get additional credit for these activities, nor are the activities in the unit aligned with any resources outside of the below list.

  1. Crinson, I., & Martino, L. (2017).  Section 1: The theoretical perspectives and methods of enquiry of the sciences concerned with human behaviour. In Concepts of Health, Wellbeing and Illness, and the Aetiology of Illness. Accessed at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4a-concepts-health-illness/section1

  2. Crinson, I., & Martino, L. (2017).  Section 2: Illness as a social role. In Concepts of Health, Wellbeing and Illness, and the Aetiology of Illness.  Accessed at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4a-concepts-health-illness/section2

  3. Crinson, I., & Martino, L. (2017).  Section 6: Impairment, disability and handicap. In Concepts of Health, Wellbeing and Illness, and the Aetiology of Illness. Accessed at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4a-concepts-health-illness/section4

  4. Mechanic, D. (1972). Sociology and public health: perspectives for application. American Journal of Public Health, 62(2),147-151. Accessed at: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.62.2.147.

Unit 2: Social Inequities in Health within and between Countries

  • Peer assess Unit 1 Written Assignment
  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
  • Make entries to the Learning Journal
  • Take the Self-Quiz

Reading Assignment


Some or all of this weeks reading come from an open resource textbook called Health knowledge, which was designed to support a diploma program in Public Health.  Though there are additional learning tools such as ppt slides, and exam preparation assignments, please note that you will not get additional credit for these activities, nor are the activities in the unit aligned with any resources outside of the below list. 

  1. Steinbach, R., & Eni-Olotu, M. (2016). Inequalities in health (e.g. by region, ethnicity, soci-economic position or gender) and in access to health care, including their causes. Equality, Equity and Policy. Access at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4c-equality-equity-policy/inequalities-distribution

  2. Crinson, I., & Martino, L. (2017).  Section 10: The role of social, cultural, psychological and family relationship factors in the aetiology of disease and illness. In Concepts of Health, Wellbeing and Illness, and the Aetiology of Illness. Accessed at: https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4a-concepts-health-illness/section7/activity4/answers

  3. WHO (2015). Fact File on Health Inequities: World Conference on the Social Determinants of Health. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/sdhconference/background/news/facts/en/

  4. Eikemo, T. A., Huisman, M., Bambra, C., & Kunst, A. E. (2008). Health inequalities according to educational level in different welfare regimes: A comparison of 23 European countries. Sociology of Health & Illness30(4), 565-582. Accessed at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2007.01073.x/full.

Unit 3: Vulnerable Populations, Stigma, and Health Outcomes

  • Peer assess Unit 2 Written Assignment
  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
  • Take the Self-Quiz
  • Take the Graded Quiz

Reading Assignment


Some or all of this weeks reading come from an open resource textbook called Health knowledge, which was designed to support a diploma program in Public Health.  Though there are additional learning tools such as ppt slides, and exam preparation assignments, please note that you will not get additional credit for these activities, nor are the activities in the unit aligned with any resources outside of the below list.

  1. Steinbach, R., & Eni-Olotu, M. (2016). Health and social effects of migration. Equality, Equity and Policy. Accessed at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4c-equality-equity-policy/migration

  2. Crinson, I., & Martino, L. (2017). Section 5. Stigma and how to tackle it. In Concepts of Health, Wellbeing and Illness, and the Aetiology of Illness. Accessed At: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4a-concepts-health-illness/section3

  3. Cloete, A., et al. (2008). Stigma and discrimination experiences of HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS Care. 20(9), 1105-1110. Accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3320098/.

  4. Nyblade, L., Stangl, A., Weiss, E., & Ashburn, K. (2009). Combating HIV stigma in health care settings: what works?. Journal of the International AIDS Society,12(1), 15. Accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2731724/.

Unit 4: Etiology of Disease: Introduction to Epidemiology

  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
  • Make entries to the Learning Journal
  • Take the Self-Quiz

Reading Assignment


Some or all of this weeks reading come from an open resource textbook called Health knowledge, which was designed to support a diploma program in Public Health.  Though there are additional learning tools such as ppt slides, and exam preparation assignments, please note that you will not get additional credit for these activities, nor are the activities in the unit aligned with any resources outside of the below list.

  1. Bonita, R., Beaglehole, R., & Kjellstrom, T. (2006). Chapter 1: What is epidemiology? In Basic Epidemiology. World Health Organization. Accessed at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43541/9241547073_eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

  2. Pheasant, H. (2008). 2a - Epidemiological paradigms. In Disease Causation and Diagnostic. (Please Read the following sections: Programming, Adult Risk Factor Approaches, and Life-Course). Accessed at: https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/disease-causation-diagnostic/2a-epidemiological-paradigms

  3. Kirwan, M.  (2006). 2b - Epidemiology of diseases of public health significance. In Disease Causation and Diagnostic. (Please read the following sections: Infectious Diseases, Cancers of Public Health Significance, Specific Chronic Diseases, and Epidemiological Frameworks). Accessed at: https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/disease-causation-diagnostic/2b-epidemiology-diseases-phs

Unit 5: Health Information and Health Analysis

  • Peer assess Unit 4 Written Assignment
  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
  • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
  • Take the Self-Quiz

Reading Assignment


Some or all of this weeks reading come from an open resource textbook called Health Knowledge, which was designed to support a diploma program in Public Health.  Though there are additional learning tools such as ppt slides, and exam preparation assignments, please note that you will not get additional credit for these activities, nor are the activities in the unit aligned with any resources outside of the below list. 

  1. AbouZahr, C., & Boerma, T. (2005). Health information systems: The foundations of public health. Bulletin of World Health Organization. 83(8), 578-583. Accessed at: http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/83/8/578.pdf.

  2. Bindra, R., & Currie, C. (2016). The use of epidemiology, and other methods in defining health services needs and in policy development. In Research Methods. Accessed at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/research-methods/1c-health-care-evaluation-health-care-assessment/uses-epidemiology-health-service-needs

  3. Blackwood, R., & Currie, C. (2016). Measure of health status, quality of life and health care. In Research Methods.  Accessed at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/research-methods/1c-health-care-evaluation-health-care-assessment/measures-health-status

  4. Blackwood, R., & Currie, C. (2016). Population health outcome indicators. In Research Methods. Accessed at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/research-methods/1c-health-care-evaluation-health-care-assessment/population-health-outcome-indicators

Unit 6: Surveillance and Control of Risks and Threats

  • Peer assess Unit 5 Written Assignment
  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Make entries to the Learning Journal
  • Take the Self-Quiz
  • Take the Graded Quiz

Reading Assignment


Some or all of this weeks reading come from an open resource textbook called Health knowledge, which was designed to support a diploma program in Public Health.  Though there are additional learning tools such as ppt slides, and exam preparation assignments, please note that you will not get additional credit for these activities, nor are the activities in the unit aligned with any resources outside of the below list.

  1. Declich, S., & Carter, A. O. (1994). Public health surveillance: Historical origins, methods and evaluation. Bulletin of the World Health Organization72(2), 285. Accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2486528/pdf/bullwho00413-0101.pdf 

  2. Thacker, S. B., Qualters, J. R., & Lee, L. M. (2012). Public health surveillance in the United States: evolution and challenges. MMWR Surveillance Summ61(Suppl), 3-9. Accessed at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6103a2.htm

  3. Mokdad, A. H., Stroup, D. F., & Giles, W. H. (2003). Public health surveillance for behavioral risk factors in a changing environment recommendations from the behavioral risk factor surveillance team. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Recommendations and Reports RR52(9). Accessed at: http://francais.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5209a1.htm

 Unit 7: Introduction to Health Economics

  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
  • Make entries to the Learning Journal
  • Take the Self-Quiz

Reading Assignment


Some or all of this weeks reading come from an open resource textbook called Health knowledge, which was designed to support a diploma program in Public Health.  Though there are additional learning tools such as ppt slides, and exam preparation assignments, please note that you will not get additional credit for these activities, nor are the activities in the unit aligned with any resources outside of the below list.

  1. Parkin, D. (2017). Principles of health economics including: The notions of scarcity, supply and demand, distinctions between need and demand, opportunity cost, discounting, time horizons, margins, efficiency and equity. In Medical Sociology, Social Policy and Health Economics. Accessed at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4d-health-economics/principles-he

  2. Parkin, D. (2017). Assessing performance. In Medical Sociology, Social Policy and Health Economics. Accessed at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4d-health-economics/assessing-performance

  3. Parkin, D. (2017). Financial resource allocation. In Medical Sociology, Social Policy and Health Economics. Accessed at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4d-health-economics/financial-resource-allocation

  4. Parkin, D. (2017). Systems of health and social care and the roles of incentives to achieve desired end-points. In Medical Sociology, Social Policy and Health Economics.  Accessed at: https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4d-health-economics/incentives

Unit 8: Public Health Strategy Development

  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Make entries to the Learning Journal
  • Take the Self-Quiz
  • Read the Unit 9 Learning Guide carefully for instructions on the Final Exam
  • Take the Review Quiz
  • Complete and submit the anonymous Course Evaluation

Reading Assignment


Some or all of this weeks reading come from an open resource textbook called Health knowledge, which was designed to support a diploma program in Public Health.  Though there are additional learning tools such as ppt slides, and exam preparation assignments, please note that you will not get additional credit for these activities, nor are the activities in the unit aligned with any resources outside of the below list.

  1. Schmidt, J. C.,  Enock, K., Laycock, M., & Beynon, C. (2017). Theories of strategic planning. In Organisation and Management. Accessed at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/organisation-management/5d-theory-process-strategy-development/strategic-planning

  2. Markwell, S., & Beynon, C.(2017). Principles underpinning the development of policy options and the strategy for their delivery. In Organisation and Management. Accessed at: http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/organisation-management/5d-theory-process-strategy-development/stragtegy-communication-implementation

Unit 9: Course Review and Final Exam

  • Read the Learning Guide and take the Review Quiz, if you haven't already done so
  • Prepare for, take, and submit the Final Exam
  • The Final Exam will take place during the Thursday and Sunday of Week/Unit 9 (UoPeople time); exact dates, times, and other details will be provided accordingly by your instructor

Course Requirements:

Written Assignments & Assessment Forms
Some units in this course require that you complete a Written Assignment. You are required to submit your assignments by the indicated deadlines and, in addition, to peer assess three (3) of your classmates’ assignments according to the instructions found in the Assessment Form, which is provided to you during the following week. During this peer assessment period, you are expected to provide details in the feedback section of the Assessment Form, indicating why you awarded the grade that you did to your peer. Please note that each assignment grade is comprised of a combination of your submission (90%) and your peer assessments (10%). Failure to submit Written Assignments and/or Assessment Forms may result in failure of the course.

Discussion Assignments & Response Posts/Ratings
Some units in this course require that you complete a Discussion Assignment. You are required to develop and post a substantive response to the Discussion Assignment in the Discussion Forum. A substantive response is one that fully answers the question that has been posed by the instructor. In addition, you must extend the discussion by responding to at least three (3) of your peers’ postings in the Discussion Forum and by rating their posts. Instructions for proper posting and rating are provided inside the Discussion Forum for each week. Discussion Forums are only active for each current and relevant learning week, so it is not possible to contribute to the forum once the learning week has come to an end. Failure to participate in the Discussion Assignment by posting in the Discussion Forum and responding to peers as required may result in failure of the course.

Learning Journals
Your instructor may choose to assign specific topics and/or relevant questions as a weekly Learning Journal entry for you to complete, but you are still encouraged to also use it to document your activities, record questions/problems you may have encountered, reflect on the learning process, and draft answers for other course assignments. The Learning Journal must be updated on a weekly basis, because its entries will be assessed by your instructor directly as a part of your final grade. The Learning Journal will only be seen by your instructor.

Quizzes
This course will contain three types of quizzes – the Self-Quiz, the Graded Quiz, and the Review Quiz. These quizzes may contain multiple choice, true/false, or short answer questions. The results of the Self-Quiz will not count towards your final grade. However, it is highly recommended that you complete the Self-Quiz to ensure that you have adequately understood the course materials. Along with the Reading Assignments, the results of the Self-Quiz should be used as part of an iterative learning process, to thoroughly cover and test your understanding of course material. You should use the results of your Self-Quiz as a guide to go back and review relevant sections of the Reading Assignments. Likewise, the Review Quiz will not count towards your final grade, but should also be used to assist you in a comprehensive review and full understanding of all course material, in preparation for your Final Exam. Lastly, the results of the Graded Quiz will count towards your final grade. Specific instructions on the format and content of the Graded Quiz will be provided by your instructor.

Final Exam  
The Final Exam will take place during the Thursday and Sunday of Week/Unit 9, following the completion of eight units of work. The format of the Final Exam is similar to that of the quizzes, and may contain a combination of different question types. You will have one attempt to take the exam, and it will be graded electronically. Specific instructions on how to prepare for and take the exam will be provided during Week/Unit 8.

Course Forum
The Course Forum is the place to raise issues and questions relating to the course. It is regularly monitored by the instructors, and is a good place to meet fellow students taking the same course. While it is not required to participate in the Course Forum, it is highly recommended.


Course Policies:

Grading Components and Weights
Each graded component of the course will contribute some percentage to the final grading scale, as indicated here:

Discussion Assignments

15%

Written Assignments

25%

Learning Journals

10%

Two Graded Quizzes  (2 @ 10%)

20%

Final Exam

30%

TOTAL

100%


Grading Scale
This course will follow the standard 100-point grading scale defined by the University of the People, as indicated here:

Letter Grade
Grade Scale Grade Points
A+ 98-100 4.00
A 93-97 4.00
A- 90-92 3.67
B+ 88-89 3.33
B 83-87 3.00
B- 80-82 2.67
C+ 78-79 2.33
C 73-77 2.00
C- 70-72 1.67
D+ 68-69 1.33
D 63-67 1.00
D- 60-62 0.67
F Under 60 0.00


Grade Appeal

If you believe that the final grade you received for a course is erroneous, unjust, or unfair, please contact your course instructor. This must be done within seven days of the posted final grade. For more information on this topic, please review the Grade Appeal Procedure in the University Catalog.

Participation
Non-participation is characterized by lack of any assignment submissions, inadequate contributions to the Discussion Forums, and/or lack of peer feedback to Discussion/Written Assignments. Also, please note the following important points about course participation:

  • Assignments must be submitted on or before the specified deadline. A course timeline is provided in the course schedule, and the instructor will specify deadlines for each assignment.
  • Any student showing non-participation for two weeks (consecutive or non-consecutive) is likely to automatically fail the course.
  • Occasionally there may be a legitimate reason for submitting an assignment late. Most of the time, late assignments will not be accepted and there will be no make-up assignments.
  • All students are obligated to inform their instructor in advance of any known absences which may result in their non-participation.

Academic Honesty and Integrity
When you submit any work that requires research and writing, it is essential to cite and reference all source material. Failure to properly acknowledge your sources is known as “plagiarism” – which is effectively passing off an individual’s words or ideas as your own. University of the People adheres to a strict policy of academic honesty and integrity. Failure to comply with these guidelines may result in sanctions by the University, including dismissal from the University or course failure. For more information on this topic, please review the Academic Integrity Policy in the University Catalog.

Any materials cited in this course should be referenced using the style guidelines established by the American Psychological Association (APA). The APA format is widely used in colleges and universities across the world and is one of several style and citation formats required for publication in professional and academic journals. Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab (OWL) is a free website that provides excellent information and resources for understanding and using the APA format and style. The OWL website can be accessed here: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/purdue_owl.html

Code of Conduct
University of the People expects that students conduct themselves in a respectful, collaborative, and honest manner at all times. Harassment, threatening behavior, or deliberate embarrassment of others will not be permitted. Any conduct that interferes with the quality of the educational experience is not allowed and may result in disciplinary action, such as course failure, probation, suspension, or dismissal. For more information on this topic, please review the Code of Conduct Policy in the University Catalog.