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Master of Education in Advanced Teaching (M.Ed.)

EDUC 5220 Curriculum Design

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EDUC 5220: Curriculum Design and Instructional Decision Making


Credits: 3


Course Description: 

This course introduces the major curricular models and analyzes their design and development, implementation, and evaluation.  The role of technology and disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches are considered, and teaching through inquiry and for conceptual understanding are explored.  Strategies for planning, conducting and evaluating curricula are covered, and the practical problems teachers face in making curricular decisions are discussed.  The course will also examine the influence of legislative and socio-political forces and the value systems of central stakeholders on planning and curriculum choices.  

Required Textbook and Materials: UoPeople courses use open educational resources (OER) and other materials specifically donated to the University with free permissions for educational use. Therefore, students are not required to purchase any textbooks or sign up for any websites that have a cost associated with them. The main required textbooks for this course are listed below, and can be readily accessed using the provided links. There may be additional required/recommended readings, supplemental materials, or other resources and websites necessary for lessons; these will be provided for you in the course's General Information and Forums area, and throughout the term via the weekly course Unit areas and the Learning Guides.

  • This course does not contain a main textbook; resources to all required reading will be provided in the course Learning Guide for each week.

Software Requirements/Installation: No special requirements.


Learning Objectives and Outcomes:

By the end of this course students will be able to:

  1. Explore the influence of various contextual factors on student learning, instruction or curriculum.
  2. Examine a rationale for teaching in a changing societyAnalyze the importance of differentiated teaching and assessment.
  3. Analyze the importance of differentiated teaching and assessment.
  4. Evaluate major social, political, and cultural trends in education.

Course Schedule and Topics: This course will cover the following topics in eight learning sessions, with one Unit per week.

Week 1: Unit 1 - What is Curriculum?

Week 2: Unit 2 - Curriculum Theory

Week 3: Unit 3 - Curriculum and the Educator

Week 4: Unit 4 - Curriculum Development

Week 5: Unit 5 - Curriculum and Cultural Diversity

Week 6: Unit 6 - Curriculum and Technology

Week 7: Unit 7 - Curriculum and Evaluation

Week 8: Unit 8 - Curriculum and Course Review


Learning Guide: The following is an outline of how this course will be conducted, with suggested best practices for studentsThe Learning Guides for all units open on the first day of class.  Please review all Learning Guides to access the readings, review assignments, etc. 

Unit 1: What is Curriculum?

  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
  • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
  • Complete the Reflective Portfolio Assignment

Reading Assignment


1. Eisner, E.  What does it mean to say a school is doing well?.  In Flinders, D. J., &   Thornton, S. J. (Eds.), The Curriculum Studies Reader, Fourth Edition (pp.297-305). New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved from: https://chrisdavidcampbell.files.wordpress.com/2016/12/eisener-2001.pdf
    • Elliot W. Eisner is highly revered when it comes to discussions about curriculum reform and in this article, he talks about rationalization and its role in the American education system.  He further explores standardized testing and what he believes it reveals about students.  As you read, many of you may recognize narrative echoes of or resonances to your own educative situations especially in terms of “out-of-classroom” professional knowledge landscapes. Eisner is also an advocate for creativity in the classroom and arts education. 
    2. Kliebard, H. (1977). Problems of Definition in Curriculum. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision Fall 1989 (5) 1, pp.1-5. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/journals/jcs/jcs_1989fall_kliebard.pdf
      • Herbert Kliebard is a well-known curriculum theorist and historian looking at past educative reforms for some insight or guidance regarding present-day classroom situations. 
      3. Su, S. (2012). The Various Concepts of Curriculum and the Factors Involved in Curricula-making. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268348184_The_Various_Concepts_of_Curriculum_and_the_Factors_Involved_in_Curricula-making
        • Shao-Wen Su is a professor at the National Chin-Yi University of Technology (Taiwan).  Her work here explores definitions of curriculum and what aspects need to be considered when deriving one’s professional understanding of the term.
        4. What is Curriculum? (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.igi-global.com/dictionary/curriculum/6468
          • IGI Global, an international academic publisher for research aimed at societal change, compiles a list here of curriculum definitions with links to additional resources. Please take a look at the list of 36 definitions on this web page.
          5. International Bureau of Education. (n.d.). Different Meanings of “Curriculum". Retrieved from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en/geqaf/annexes/technical-notes/different-meanings-%E2%80%9Ccurriculum%E2%80%9D
            • This website provides information on curricula from a global standpoint. This page of the website focuses on how a curriculum is developed and differs as it moves from paper to classroom implementation. After reading Different Meanings of "Curriculum", take a moment and review the different resources available on this website.
            6. UNESCO International Bureau of Education (UNESCO-IBE). (2016). What makes a quality curriculum? Current and Critical Issues in Curriculum and Learning (2), pp.1-41. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002439/243975e.pdf

            • This resources are taken from UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and their collected international understandings of curriculum.
            7 . UNESCO International Bureau of Education (UNESCO-IBE). (2013). The Curriculum Debate: why it is important today. Geneva: UNESCO-IBE. Retrieved from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/resources/wpci-10-curr_debate_eng.pdf

              • This resources are taken from UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) and their collected international understandings of curriculum.

              Optional Video

              1. Fell, R. (2014, April 09). What is Curriculum [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zHM9AGmF7T8 (2:06)

              • This is an introductory video created by pre-service teachers as they decipher the term curriculum and the layers of its definition.
              2. lwf. (2011, March 21). Sir Ken Robinson, Creativity, Learning & the Curriculum [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9X0CESnGQ8U&t=124s (29:26)

              • In this video, Sir Ken Robinson discusses the need for creativity when it comes to learning within the classroom.  Though curriculum is often seen as prescriptive, there are elements of it that are subjective because of its inherent connection to human growth and learning.

              Unit 2: Curriculum Theory

              • Peer assess Unit 1 Written Assignment
              • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
              • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
              • Complete and submit the Written Assignment

              Reading Assignment

              1. Alvior, M.G. (2014). Six Famous Curriculum Theorists and their Contribution to Education. Retrieved from http://simplyeducate.me/2014/12/03/six-famous-curriculum-theorists-and-their-contributions-to-education/
                • Scroll down the page and have a quick look at the 6 Curriculum Theorists featured in the list on this site.  It is a quick overview of said persons that you will encounter throughout the course.
                2. History of Education: Selected Moments of the 20th Century. (n.d.). 1949: Ralph W. Tyler Publishes Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Retrieved from http://fcis.oise.utoronto.ca/~daniel_sc/assignment1/1949tyler.html

                  • Ralph Tyler is well-known for his 1949 book entitled Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction.  In fact, it was one of the first books I purchased when I started graduate school and it is still a part of my personal library.  You will be reading the introduction this week but here is a webpage with an overview of the history of the text.
                  3. Pinar, W. (1978). The Reconceptualisation of Curriculum Studies. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 10:3, 205-21. Retrieved from: http://daneshnamehicsa.ir/userfiles/file/Resources/8-2%29%20Ideologies/ARTICLE_William%20Pinar.pdf
                    • Schiro (2013) alludes to “advanced-level theoretical concerns of curriculum theorists” (p.xv) in his book that you will read excerpts from this week and William Pinar may be one such theorist.  In this piece here, Pinar explains three particular approaches to curriculum and how negotiations of all three may best serve the current education system of his time.  This was written when postmodernism in education was taking root and I believe it parallels some of Schiro’s ideas within the Curriculum Ideologies.
                    4. Schiro, M. S. (2013). Curriculum theory: Conflicting visions and enduring concerns (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc. Retrieved from: https://talkcurriculum.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/schiro-m-2013-introduction-to-the-curriculum-ideologies.pdf
                      • Here is Chapter 1 from Schiro’s text that will give you more details regarding the 4 Curriculum Ideologies.
                      5. Slattery, P. (1995). Curriculum Development in the Postmodern Era.  New York & London: Garland Publishing, Inc. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=mBb9CAm3BP0C or this link may also be used: https://www.book2look.com/embed/9781136494185

                      • Patrick Slattery is a researcher and scholar navigating through facets of curriculum theory in the postmodern era.  Though his book was written in the 1990s, he puts together a pseudo-collage of curriculum theory and offers its implications for educative practices.  I believe this is the sort of thought process that will take place in your own studies throughout the course and, so I felt we should take a look at what other researchers attempt in terms of curriculum theory exploration and how they share their personal stories.
                      • Please read the section at the start of the text entitled Personal Philosophical Roots and Aims of This Book (to page 67.)  You will need to use Microsoft Edge to access the text – Google chrome may not give you the preview up to page 67.  Also, as for page numbering, the second page needs to be subtracted by 1 so for example, when it says 15-17 at the bottom, it's actually pgs.15-16.

                      6. Tyler, R. (1949). In Flinders, D. J., &   Thornton, S. J. (Eds.), The Curriculum Studies Reader, Fourth Edition (pp.11-18).  New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved from: https://talkcurriculum.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/tyler-r-2013-basic-principles-of-curriculum-and-instruction.pdf

                        • As mentioned, here is the introduction to Ralph Tyler’s (1949) text.  Do take note of the four main questions within Tyler’s rationale.

                         Optional Videos

                        1. Boushon, A. (2017, April 10). Curriculum Ideologies [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ON3eH-5GBsc&feature=youtu.be
                          • In this short student video, Schiro’s 4 curriculum ideologies (Scholar Academic, Social Efficiency, Learner-Centered, and Social Reconstruction).  You will be reading about how these curriculum positions have found their way into your classroom and also, negotiate their implementation as collective and often overlapping curricular ideals.
                          2. Biliteracy Now. (2013, April 28). Curriculum Theory Documentary [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MXTDs5_VjPI&feature=youtu.be

                            • This video is from an American graduate student discussing the purpose of learning and the positioning of students within a system of education.  This video project draws upon the ideologies of Brazilian educator Paulo Freire.  Because Schiro’s 4 ideologies are based on mostly U.S. practices, I think it best to have a few examples of policies and issues that are presently occurring. Though the details differ from classroom to classroom worldwide, certain issues as in standardized practices or student empowerment remain of constant concern for all educators.

                            Unit 3: Curriculum and the Educator

                            • Peer assess Unit 2 Written Assignment
                            • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                            • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
                            • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
                            • Meet with your assigned group and complete the pre-group work tasks outlined in the Group Work document 
                            • Complete the Reflective Portfolio Assignment

                            Reading Assignment

                            1. Ewing, R. (2013).  Curriculum and Assessment: Storylines. (2nd Edition).  Australia and New Zealand: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://lib.oup.com.au/he/Education/samples/ewing_curriculum2e_sample.pdf

                              • This reading introduces the notion of narrative in curriculum implementation meaning how an educator comes to understand the policies in place and how to put forth said aspects relative to the learner.
                              2. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Book, Simon and Schuster. Retrieved from http://ruby.fgcu.edu/Courses/ndemers/Colloquium/ExperiencEducationDewey.pdf

                                • Dewey’s (1938) Experience and Education explores the puzzles of: How has experience in education been determined and explored?   What are educative versus miseducative experiences?   How do we negotiate experience when it comes to educative reform?  Written almost a century ago, the style of writing may seem outdated but the ideas are not – Dewey’s notions have informed educative practices worldwide.
                                3. Chan, E.Y. (2012). The Transforming Power of Narrative in Teacher Education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37 (3), 111-127. Retrieved from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1724&context=ajte

                                  • Dr. Chan Yim Mei Esther is an Assistant Professor at The Hong Institute of Education in the department of early childhood education.  Her work uses Narrative Inquiry for teacher knowledge and development.
                                  4. Craig, C. (2011). Narrative inquiry in teaching and teacher education. Advances in Research on Teaching, 13, 19–42. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235282657_Narrative_inquiry_in_teaching_and_teacher_education

                                    • Cheryl J. Craig is a Professor in the Department of Teaching, Learning, and Culture at Texas A&M University. She conducts research using Narrative Inquiry to understand teaching and curriculum in urban schools. 
                                    5. Meier, K.S. (n.d.). Role of Teachers in the Curriculum Process. Retrieved from http://work.chron.com/role-teachers-curriculum-process-5344.html

                                      • Stacy Zeiger teaches writing as an eighth grade English teacher and offers 4 criteria for teachers involved in the curriculum process.

                                      Optional Videos

                                      1. 239MikeO. (2012, September 16). A short video interview with Prof. Jean Clandinin. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnaTBqapMrE (9:57)
                                        • This video is a Q&A with Dr. Jean Clandinin explaining the methodology of Narrative Inquiry in Education Research.  Narrative Inquiry is the gathering and telling of people’s stories to understand experiences and how they contribute to one’s professional understandings.
                                        2. Davidson Films, Inc. (2010, June 21). John Dewey's Theories on Education and Learning: An Introduction to His Life and Work [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGjSMqwlP3E&t=43s (3:56)

                                        3. Wisdom, A. (2011, November 30). John Dewey Experience and Education: a brief summary
                                        [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwIcl-G93Mo  (8:55)

                                          • Here is a link to a video introduction to John Dewey plus a more extensive video summary of his work and beliefs in education. John Dewey is known for his explorations of Experience in Education as well as Social interaction and Student Participation.  He is often considered one of the most significant figures in the history of American education and his writings are internationally acclaimed.

                                          Unit 4: Curriculum Development

                                          • Peer assess Unit 3 Written Assignment
                                          • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                                          • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
                                          • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
                                          • Continue to participate in the Group Activity
                                          • Complete the Reflective Portfolio Assignment

                                          Reading Assignment

                                          1. Addams, J. (1908). The Public School & the Immigrant Child.  Retrieved from https://educ820in2015.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/addams-1908-the-public-school-and-the-immigrant-child.pdf
                                            • Jane Addams had quite an eclectic existence.  Not only was she part of the suffrage movement, but she also created one of the first community schools offering educational and social programs. She was also a close colleague of John Dewey and she initiated discussions about peace education in the United States.  Her short chapter entitled The Public School and the Immigrant Child takes a look at the roles of the teacher in terms of supporting immigrant students. 

                                            2. Glatthorn A.A., Boschee, F., Whitehead, B.M., (2009). Curriculum Development and Implementation. Curriculum Leadership: Strategies for Development and Implementation. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/44331_10.pdf
                                              • The chapter here explores the idea of curriculum development and implementation from program philosophy to course construction.
                                              3. Counts, G.S.  (1932). Dare the School Build a New Social Order? New York: John Day.  Retrieved from https://www.curezone.org/upload/PDF/Counts_George_Dare_the_School_Build_a_New_Social_Order_1932_.pdf
                                                • Begin with Section III on page 27. George S. Counts’ Dare the School Build a New Social Order? is revisited by many scholars of today because of its explorations of democracy and capitalism and their effect on education.   
                                                4. Jacobs, H.H. (2010). A New Essential Curriculum for a New Time. Curriculum 21: Essential Education For A Changing World. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/109008/chapters/A-New-Essential-Curriculum-for-a-New-Time.aspx
                                                  • Jacobs is the founder and president of Curriculum Designers Inc. and consults schools nationally and internationally.  Her experience comes from years as a teacher of high school and junior high school.  Here in this chapter, she presents readers with a reflective chapter about curriculum considerations and possible reasons for a change in teaching and learning.  I include additional readings from her that are relative to this unit about Curriculum Development.
                                                  5. Jacobs, H.H. (2004). Development of a Prologue: Setting the Stage for Curriculum Mapping. Getting Results with Curriculum Mapping. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/104011/chapters/Development-of-a-Prologue@-Setting-the-Stage-for-Curriculum-Mapping.aspx
                                                    • In this chapter, Jacob introduces you to the idea of curriculum mapping and how the pre-planning stage is contributory to its success.
                                                    6. Jacobs, H.H. (2004). Use of Curriculum Mapping to Build a Learning CommunityGetting Results with Curriculum Mapping. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/104011/chapters/Use-of-Curriculum-Mapping-to-Build-a-Learning-Community.aspx

                                                      • In this chapter, Jacobs furthers the idea of curriculum mapping and how it builds learning communities.
                                                      7. Jacobs, H.H. (2004). Curriculum Mapping as a Hub: Integrating New Forms of Data, Decision-Making Structures, and Staff Development. Getting Results with Curriculum Mapping. Retrieved from: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/104011/chapters/Curriculum_Mapping_as_a_Hub@_Integrating_New_Forms_of_Data,_Decision-Making_Structures,_and_Staff_Development.aspx
                                                        • In this chapter, Jacobs discusses how curriculum mapping builds bridges amongst stakeholders involved in a school.  She uses the term “hub” as the meeting place for all involved to be aware of curriculum policy used.
                                                        8. Mengi, B. & Olgun, K., Pinar & Pilli, Olga & Yildirim, H. (2004). What Are The Major Curriculum Issues?: The Use Of Mindmapping As A Brainstorming Exercise.  Retrieved from http://cmc.ihmc.us/papers/cmc2004-069.pdf
                                                          • This article applies the ideas of curriculum mapping in response to curricular concerns as determined by the researchers.  The research applies said knowledge to a graduate program in Turkey.
                                                          9. Paper Masters (n.d.) Curriculum Implementation. Retrieved from https://www.papermasters.com/curriculum-implementation.html
                                                            • This paper is a short overview of curriculum implementation and the length of time that may be required for the authenticity of usage.
                                                            10. The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (n.d.). Concept Mapping and Curriculum Design.  Retrieved from https://www.utc.edu/walker-center-teaching-learning/teaching-resources/cm-cd.php

                                                              • This online article explores the ideas of Concept Mapping and Curriculum Design and it also explores their origins within theories of constructivism.

                                                              Optional Video

                                                              1. Alghamdi, Y. (2013, April 2). Maxine Greene - William Pinar - Elliot Eisner - Patrick Slattery (combined video) [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IoEIXb6nyWo&feature=youtu.be (12:47)
                                                                • The first video features the educational theorists Maxine Green - William Pinar - Eliott Eisner - Patrick Slattery.  Except for Maxine Green, these authors will be used in a few modules but Green's work is in the textbook - unfortunately, we won't get a chance to thoroughly explore her piece but feel free to read the chapter.You can watch the whole video, but I would like you to listen to Patrick Slattery's definition of curriculum which occurs at the 9 minute and 29-second mark.  This section is not a video per se but rather the audio of an interview.
                                                                2. TedxTalks. (2014, March 14). The tyranny of the curriculum: Shawn Cornally at TEDxEastsidePrep [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aldMBgT6u-4&list=PLX6qAJijD8H0YS1uO8vugWNDhpbn4im6K(18:16)
                                                                  • The speaker discusses what many of us may consider as we take a look at the classrooms we work in and how the curriculum is developed for these spaces.  He also addresses the dire state of why children hate going to school.
                                                                  3. Waterbuggi. (2011, September 9). The Life and Work of Jane Addams [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tw4GZeABlNI&feature=youtu.be (5.:49)

                                                                    • The short video about Jane Addams highlights some of the successes this remarkable scholar achieved in her lifetime.

                                                                    Unit 5: Curriculum and Cultural Diversity

                                                                    • Peer assess Unit 4 Written Assignment
                                                                    • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                                                                    • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
                                                                    • Continue to participate in the Group Activity
                                                                    • Complete and submit the Written Assignment

                                                                    Reading Assignment

                                                                    1. Au, W. (2012). What Curriculum Could Be: Utopian Dreams amidst a Dystopian Reality. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 48:2, pp.55-58. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254316073_What_Curriculum_Could_Be_Utopian_Dreams_amidst_a_Dystopian_Reality
                                                                      • Professor Au explores educative theories and their influences on his understanding of curriculum and possibilities within curriculum theory and development.
                                                                      2. Bruner, J. (1965). Man a Course of Study. Man: A Course of Study. Occasional Paper No. 3. Retrieved from 
                                                                      http://www.macosonline.org/research/Bruner_MACOS%20-Occasional%20Paper%203.pdf
                                                                        3. Clark, S. (2010). Jerome Bruner: Teacher, Learning and the Spiral Curriculum. Community and Thought in Education.  Retrieved from https://sheldonclark.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/jerome-bruner-teaching-learning-and-the-spiral-curriculum2.pdf
                                                                          4. Doll Jr., W.E. (1993). The Four R’s – An Alternative to the Tyler Rationale. In Flinders, D. J., & Thornton, S. J. (Eds.). (2013). The Curriculum Studies Reader (2nd ed.).  New  York: Routledge. Retrieved from https://chrisdavidcampbell.files.wordpress.com/2016/12/doll-1993.pdf
                                                                            • In William E. Doll Jr.’s (1993) piece entitled The Four R’s – An Alternative to the Tyler Rationale, we are being asked to rework certain Tylerian thoughts in order to make them relevant for current curriculum programs.  Doll Jr. suggests a break from tradition; to change in order to meet the changing needs of our diverse classrooms.
                                                                            5. Freire, P. (1970, 1993). Chapter 3 In Pedagogy of the Oppressed. London: The Continuum International Publishing Group. Retrieved from http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon2/pedagogy/pedagogychapter3.html

                                                                            • Paulo Freire’s Chapter 3 takes us on a bit of journey when it comes to curriculum reform because we are exposed to his very unique style of research writing.  Freire was never shy of expressing his thoughts poetically and though thought-provoking and profound, it may take a reading or two just to get used to his style.  Having said this though, we are now clearly entering a very distinct politicized zone of student concern.  We are moving away from talking about students as simply  “receivers” or “vessels” lacking/gaining knowledge.  We are starting to explicitly discuss the welfare, the background and the cultures of our students.  Also, we are looking at the ideas of power and privilege and how the two influence curriculum development.
                                                                            6. Sleeter, C. & Stillman, J. (2005). Standardizing Knowledge in a Multicultural Society. Curriculum Inquiry, 35 (1). pp 27 -46. Retrieved from http://wp.vcu.edu/hhughesdecatur/files/2013/01/Standardizing-knowledge_sleeter-2005.pdf
                                                                              • This article discusses the standardizing of the curriculum in conjunction with the power, control and those influenced by those who wield it.
                                                                              7. Takaya, K. (2008). Jerome Bruner's Theory of Education: From Early Bruner to Later Bruner. Interchange: A Quarterly Review of Education, 39(1), pp. 1-19 Retrieved from http://ocw.metu.edu.tr/pluginfile.php/8931/mod_resource/content/1/7su.pdf

                                                                                • Professor Takaya explores the evolution of Bruner’s thoughts on culture relative to curriculum theory and design.

                                                                                Optional Videos

                                                                                1. Caucus of Working Educators. (2015, October 10). Wayne Au on High Stakes Testing 10/24/15 [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IB5-lOGEiiE (31:42)
                                                                                  • The first video features Professor Wayne Au and how he theorizes the connection between standardized testing and racist practices in American schools, past and present. You will be reading one of his articles in this unit.
                                                                                  2. FriereProject. (2008, June 25). Paulo Freire and Critical Pedagogy [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wFOhVdQt27c (2:18)
                                                                                    3. LiteracyDotOrg. (2009, December 30). Paulo Freire – An Incredible Conversation [Video File]. Retrieved from  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aFWjnkFypFA (8:14)

                                                                                      • Paulo Freire, a renowned educator, is quite profound.  In one video, you hear Freire share his viewpoints and in the second video, some critical researchers share their thoughts connected to Freire's influence on critical pedagogy.

                                                                                      Unit 6: Curriculum and Technology

                                                                                      • Peer assess Unit 5 Written Assignment
                                                                                      • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                                                                                      • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
                                                                                      • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
                                                                                      • Post finalized Group Activity 
                                                                                      • Complete the Reflective Portfolio Assignment

                                                                                      Reading Assignment



                                                                                      1. Abdullah, F. (2016). Integrate Technology In The Curriculum As An Effective Teaching Strategy.  International Journal of Academic Research Vol.4(1), pp. 40-50. Retrieved from http://www.ijarsite.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/IJAR-4-1-2016.pdf
                                                                                        • Dr. Abdullah makes a case for the need to integrate technology into the classroom and the benefits that can ensue for students, teachers and the relationship between students and teachers.
                                                                                        2.  Andrews, D. (2013, March 6). iPads in the classroom: embedding technology in the primary curriculum. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/teacher-blog/2013/mar/06/ipad-ipod-technology-primary-curriculum

                                                                                          • This entry comes from David Andrews and is a narrative account of how he used hand-held devices in his classroom and what he witnessed during and after the lessons were complete.

                                                                                          3. Ellis, B. (2017, January 30). Which comes first: the curriculum or the technology? Technotes. Retrieved from https://blog.tcea.org/comes-first-curriculum-technology/
                                                                                            • In this article, the author sees the benefits of technology in the classroom but makes the point that it should enhance the curriculum and not be forced upon students. It is an introspective piece discussing the role and importance of including technology in the learning experience.
                                                                                            4. Henson, A. (2012, May 1). Why Technology is Essential in Curriculum and Content Alignment. Retrieved from  http://www.internetatschools.com/Articles/Editorial/Features/Why-Technology-Is-Essential-in-Curriculum-and-Content-Alignment-5bAvailable-Full-Text2c-Free5d-82253.aspx
                                                                                              • This article discusses technology serving as adhesive to tie together curriculum and content alignment as well as serving as an educational tool for both teachers and students.

                                                                                              5. Kaplan, D.E. (2017). Creative Technology in the Curriculum in Online Teacher Training. Creative Education 8(8). Retrieved from http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=77518

                                                                                              • This article describes the role teachers play in terms of technology integration in classrooms.  How are teachers being trained to accomplish this and do online programs help support their training? 
                                                                                              6. Montessori, M. (2013). A critical consideration of the new pedagogy in its relation to modern science. In: D. J. Flinders & S. J. Thornton (eds.), Curriculum Studies Reader (4th ed.), pp. 19–31. New York, NY: RoutledgeFalmer.  Retrieved from https://acurriculumjourney.files.wordpress.com/2014/04/montessori-1912-a-critical-consideration-of-the-new-pedagogy-in-its-relation-to-modern-science.pdf
                                                                                                • Maria Montessori believed in activating the learning experience and I believe her work to be a fitting inclusion in this unit because she challenged the typical teacher-directed classroom and gave students experiential activities and facilitated learning.  Her work here describes a shift in consciousness in terms of educators (both researchers and teachers) and their involvement in curriculum design.
                                                                                                7. Prensky, M. (2008). The Role of Technology in teaching and the classroom.  Educational Technology. Retrieved from http://marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky-The_Role_of_Technology-ET-11-12-08.pdf

                                                                                                  • Prensky’s work here feels like an extension of Montessori’s notion of learner-centered classrooms.  Prensky feels that technology’s role is to support students learning on their own.

                                                                                                  8. Smith, R., Killen, C., & Knight, S., (2013, September 9).  Using technology to improve curriculum design. Retrieved from https://www.jisc.ac.uk/guides/using-technology-to-improve-curriculum-design

                                                                                                  • The authors offer up ideas regarding technology as a means of improving the research and design of curriculum programs.  The explore 8 stages of technology in curriculum design from the engagement of stakeholders to reflect on the process to improve the design.
                                                                                                  9. Starr, L. (2016, May 10). Integrating Technology in the Classroom: It Takes More Than Just Having Computers. Education World. Retrieved from http://www.educationworld.com/a_tech/tech/tech146.shtml
                                                                                                    • This is an excellent resource for teachers new to the idea of integrating technology in the classroom.  There are excellent samples here plus websites as well to incorporate into your methods of instruction.       
                                                                                                    10. Zuga, K.F., (2008). Social Reconstruction Curriculum and Technology Education.  Journal of Technology Education, Vol. 3 (2). pp.48-58. Retrieved from https://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v3n2/pdf/zuga.pdf

                                                                                                      • This article discusses the Social Reconstruction ideology in terms of schools and society as connected rather than disconnected as per traditional schooling.  The learning experience was about skills and facts and little to no attention was given to actual real-world contexts.  The author here considers how technology education may bridge the gap between classroom and community.

                                                                                                      Optional Videos

                                                                                                      1. Novack, C.P. (2013, December 11). Practical Ways to Integrate Technology in the Classroom (Without Being An Expert)[Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AgLNRKQR3AI (5:19)
                                                                                                        • This video demonstrates the need for more technology in the classroom experience to keep pace with certain curricula objectives.  Technology co-ordinators and mentoring are showcased in this discussion.
                                                                                                        2. NDTV. (2014, December 18). Integrating technology into the curriculum [Video File] Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5XPrfN6o2o
                                                                                                          • This video showcases the technology being used in Indian classrooms propelling students in their learning experiences. 
                                                                                                          3. OurKidsNet. (2012, November 1). Inside Montessori Schools [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4_m6OIqYH4Q (4:06)
                                                                                                            4. Sprouts. (2016,  June 14). Montessori School Education [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzmvtVAuuyI (3:34)
                                                                                                              • These videos are in regard to the work of Maria Montessori. The first video shows the Montessori classroom and what the experience is within the learning environment.  The second video is a brief overview of Maria’s life and development of the Montessori program.
                                                                                                              5. WSRTech. (2013, January 11). Integrating Technology into the Curriculum: 2nd Grade iMovies [Video File} Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T8KGWltI_WQ (3:29)

                                                                                                                • In this video, a grade 2 class uses an application and a tablet to construct movies based on a unit of study.

                                                                                                                 Unit 7: Curriculum and Evaluation

                                                                                                                • Peer assess Unit 6 Written Assignment
                                                                                                                • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                                                                                                                • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
                                                                                                                • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
                                                                                                                • Complete the Reflective Portfolio Assignment

                                                                                                                Reading Assignment



                                                                                                                1. Guba E.G., & Lincoln, Y.S. (2001). Guidelines and For Constructivist (A.K.A. Fourth Generation) Evaluation. Pp.1-15. Retrieved from http://www.dmeforpeace.org/sites/default/files/Guba%20and%20Lincoln_Constructivist%20Evaluation.pdf
                                                                                                                  • Guba and Lincoln are considered to be foundational researchers when it comes to ideas of evaluation.  In this piece, they discuss the principles of Constructivist Evaluation. 
                                                                                                                  2. Huebbner A.J. & Betts, S.C. (1999). Examining Fourth Generation Evaluation Application to Positive Youth Development.  Evaluation 5(3). Pp.340-358.  Retrieved from http://www.stes-apes.med.ulg.ac.be/Documents_electroniques/EVA/EVA-GEN/ELE%20EVA-GEN%207467.pdf
                                                                                                                    • The researchers here implement Guba and Lincolns’ Fourth Generation principles into a community-university collaborative program.  This will help you see the theoretical constructs as applied to an actual program in development. 
                                                                                                                    3. Professional Development Resource. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://preserviceteacherresource.weebly.com/assessment-role.html

                                                                                                                      • A quick resource here for teachers in terms of assessment of one’s practice and the worth of conducting teacher research.
                                                                                                                      4. Atkin J.M., Black P., Coffey J., (Eds) (2001).  Chapter 1 An Introduction to Assessment in the Science Classroom (pp. 7-10), Chapter 3 Assessment in the Classroom (pp. 23-58) and Chapter 4 The Relationship Between Formative and Summative Assessment In the Classroom and Beyond (pp.59-78).  In Classroom Assessment and the National Science Education Standards.  National Academy Press: Washington, DC.  Retrieved from https://www.nap.edu/read/9847/chapter/1
                                                                                                                        • Read Chapters 1, 3 and 4 from the book by clicking on the CONTENTS tab at the top of the page.  You will be able to access these chapters plus others if you would like to read more.  Chapters 1, 3 and 4 highlight the notion of assessment and evaluation of students in the Science classroom. 
                                                                                                                        5. Au, W. (2007).  High-Stakes Testing and Curricular Control: A Qualitative Metasynthesis.  Educational Researcher, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 258-267. Retrieved from http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/EMAT7050/articles/Au.pdf
                                                                                                                          • Here Au (2007) explores the notion of “Teaching to the Test” and how with tests, educators reduce the curricular scope and for opportunities of learning based on individualized instruction.  What students learn and return show more about rote skills then they do about actual knowledge and interests in lifelong learning. Many of us have experienced or are currently experiencing a “teaching for the test” approach to education.  We have talked about the ramifications associated with results-based learning and shared our personal and professional experiences in order to deliberate its value in our classrooms.  
                                                                                                                          6. UNESCO (2015). Student Learning Assessment and the Curriculum: Issues and Implications for Policy, Design, and Implementation.  Current and Critical Issues in the Curriculum and Learning.  Pp. 1-29. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002354/235489e.pdf
                                                                                                                            • This report explores the ideas of the testing of students.  The report argues that in order for assessment to be of high quality and relevant, and for it to inform real improvements to the overall education system and its outcomes, it must be in full and functional harmony with a system’s curriculum, teacher training and support, texts and materials, planning, budgeting and all other departments.  The present report explores the ways in which assessment is vital to education and posits means by which it can connect effectively to the other key education functions to drive a national system forward to 2030.
                                                                                                                            7. Okyere. P. (n.d.) Curriculum Evaluation Models. Pp. 1-16. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/9846526/CURRICULUM_EVALUATION_MODELS

                                                                                                                              • The author here presents an overview of Curriculum Evaluation models from clarifying terms to explanations of the various types implemented in a school.

                                                                                                                              Optional Videos

                                                                                                                              1. Caucus of Working Educators. (2015, October 10). Wayne Au on High Stakes Testing 10/24/15 [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IB5-lOGEiiE (31:42)
                                                                                                                                • The first video features Professor Wayne Au and how he theorizes the connection between standardized testing and racist practices in American schools, past and present. You will be reading one of his articles in this unit.   The video connects to our previous discussions about Curriculum and Culture.
                                                                                                                                2. Jasir Saliring. (2017, August 16). Curriculum Development: Curriculum Evaluation (What, Why and How) [Video File]. Retrieved from  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JX9xzRC1n9A&t=51s (2:24)
                                                                                                                                  • This video is a quick overview of Curriculum Evaluation.
                                                                                                                                  3. Seth Perler. (2016, February 14). An Excellent Way to Evaluate Curriculum [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XyOIqlRWrg8 (8:24)

                                                                                                                                    • The speaker of this video introduces another way to evaluate curriculum based on the principles of ContentProcess, and Product.  The video is for both teachers and parents, but the talk is beneficial for all involved in educative environments.

                                                                                                                                    Unit 8: Curriculum and Course Review

                                                                                                                                    • Peer assess Unit 7 Written Assignment
                                                                                                                                    • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                                                                                                                                    • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
                                                                                                                                    • Complete the Reflective Portfolio Assignment
                                                                                                                                    • Complete and submit the anonymous Course Evaluation

                                                                                                                                    Reading Assignment

                                                                                                                                    1. Bobbitt, F. (1918). In Flinders, D. J., &   Thornton, S. J. (Eds.), The Curriculum Studies Reader, Fourth Edition (pp.11-18). New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved from: http://wp.vcu.edu/hhughesdecatur/wp-content/uploads/sites/1868/2013/01/Bobbit_Curriculum-Studies-Reader1.pdf
                                                                                                                                      • Franklin Bobbitt’s (1918) Scientific Method in Curriculum Making starts us off on our journey through curriculum reform with this paper written about 100 years ago.  Bobbitt views learning from the lens of what students are missing in terms of becoming successful adults; he argues for a “scientific” method, one that is systematic or procedural to bridge the gap between “uneducated” student and “productive” adult. 
                                                                                                                                      2. Carpenter, S., Weber,N. & Schugurensky,D.  (2012) Views from the blackboard: neoliberal education reforms and the practice of teaching in Ontario, Canada. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 10:2, pp. 145-161. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254266551_Views_from_the_blackboard_Neoliberal_education_reforms_and_the_practice_of_teaching_in_Ontario_Canada
                                                                                                                                        • This article discusses the effect of Neoliberalism on the classroom experience including the weight it carries as more policy shifts occur.         
                                                                                                                                        3. Glatthorn, A. A., Boschee, F., & Whitehead, B. M. (2009). Curriculum leadership: strategies for development and implementation. 2nd ed. Los Angeles: Sage. Retrieved from https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/44333_12.pdf
                                                                                                                                          • This reading explores innovative curriculum ideas that educators can easily implement into their curriculum through reflective case studies. Also interspersed throughout the book are tried and true strategies that provide administrators with innovative ideas on meeting state and national standards. 
                                                                                                                                          4. Jacobs, H.H. (2010). New School Versions: Reinventing and Reuniting School Program Structures. Curriculum 21: Essential Education For A Changing World.  Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/109008/chapters/New-School-Versions@-Reinventing-and-Reuniting-School-Program-Structures.aspx
                                                                                                                                            • Jacobs presents readers with possible reasons for curriculum change and how to best engage a curriculum for the 21st century learner. 
                                                                                                                                            5. McIntosh, P. (1989). White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. National SEED Project on Inclusive Curriculum.  Pp.1-7. Retrieved from https://nationalseedproject.org/images/documents/Knapsack_plus_Notes-Peggy_McIntosh.pdf 
                                                                                                                                              • In this early piece, Mcintosh discusses the issues of white privilege and how it may find its way into a curriculum.  Power and privilege permeate many curricular programs and Mcintosh was one of the first researchers to write about these realities. 
                                                                                                                                              6. Noddings, N.  (2007).  Curriculum for the 21st Century.  Educational Studies in Japan: International Yearbook No.2, pp.75-81. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ842882.pdf

                                                                                                                                              • This short piece by Nel Noddings explores whether the current curriculum is continuously organized around traditional disciplines or has drastically changed over the last hundred years.
                                                                                                                                              7. Van der Valk, A. (2014). Peggy McIntosh: Beyond the Knapsack. Teaching Tolerance. Retrieved from https://www.tolerance.org/magazine/spring-2014/peggy-mcintosh-beyond-the-knapsack

                                                                                                                                                • The author here revisits Peggy Mcintosh’s piece from 1989 in light of her own experiences and perspectives.

                                                                                                                                                Optioinal Videos

                                                                                                                                                1. Axisaudio. (2014, March 27). Neoliberalism, Youth and Social Justice [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KW5FRuMkQ6g (10:03)
                                                                                                                                                  • Henry Giroux, an educative critical theorist discusses Neoliberalism as a socio-cultural concept as well as its effect on education. Neoliberalism is the rise of the business-like approach in foundations including education where students become clients or consumers rather than learners.  Giroux also calls it the "corporatization of schools". 
                                                                                                                                                  2. Randomactsofkindness. (2013, September 11). Dr. Nel Noddings, Kindness in the Classroom Lecture Intro [Video File]. Retrieved from  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7rVDDot3W7k&feature=youtu.be (2:22)                
                                                                                                                                                    • In this brief video, Noddings actually began as a math teacher in elementary and high school before she transitioned into academics within the fields of educational philosophy and the ethics of care.  You will read a piece by her in this unit.              
                                                                                                                                                    3. Tedx Talks. (2012, November 5). "How Studying Privilege Systems Can Strengthen Compassion": Peggy McIntosh at TEDxTimberlaneSchools [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-BY9UEewHw  (18:26)

                                                                                                                                                      • In this video, Mcintosh discusses the idea of privilege and its effect on society.  You will be reading a very well-known piece by her that explores privilege and its effect on education.

                                                                                                                                                      Optional Readings

                                                                                                                                                      The following readings are optional, but they explore specific social issues relative to curriculum reform. 

                                                                                                                                                      1. Chan, E. (2006). Teacher Experiences of Culture in the Curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 38(2). pp 161–176 Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228342367_Teacher_experience_of_culture_in_the_curriculum
                                                                                                                                                        • Chan’s work is set in the Canadian context in terms of cultural diversity and curriculum reform.  This is a narrative inquiry study looking at the role of teachers in terms of addressing diversity for a particular school event – the field trip.  
                                                                                                                                                        2. Moroye, C.M. (2009). Moving Beyond Fidelity Expectations: Rethinking Curriculum Reform for Controversial Topics in Post-Communist Settings. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41 (6) pp.789–811. Retrieved from https://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/~sallen/hamish/Moroye%20(2009).%20Complementary%20curriculum%20-%20the%20work%20of%20ecologically%20minded%20teachers.pdf
                                                                                                                                                          • Moroye focuses on the teacher’s role in terms of students’ awareness of environmental issues.  Moroye’s piece cleverly embeds interview excerpts to help build her arguments and so, this is a prime example of curriculum reform relative to a specific field of study.   The research examines how ecologically-minded teachers who do not necessarily teach environmental topics negotiate their personal beliefs within their practice.     
                                                                                                                                                          3. Sumara, D. & Davis, B. (2013). Interrupting Heteronormativity: Toward a Queer Curriculum Theory In Flinders, D. J., & Thornton, S. J. (Eds.), The Curriculum Studies Reader, Fourth Edition (pp.315-329). New York, NY:  Routledge. Retrieved from https://chrisdavidcampbell.files.wordpress.com/2016/12/sumara-davis-2013.pdf

                                                                                                                                                            • Sumara and Davis explore curriculum reform in terms of the marginalization of a certain group based on cultural markers outside of visible minority status.  Sumara and Davis focus on the hidden curriculum in terms of heteronormativity and the deeper chasms of homophobia and heterosexism. 


                                                                                                                                                            Course Requirements:

                                                                                                                                                            Discussion Assignments & Response Posts/Ratings
                                                                                                                                                            Some units in this course require that you complete a Discussion Assignment. You are required to develop and post a substantive response to the Discussion Assignment in the Discussion Forum. A substantive response is one that fully answers the question that has been posed by the instructor. In addition, you must extend the discussion by responding to at least three (3) of your peers’ postings in the Discussion Forum and by rating their posts. Instructions for proper posting and rating (out of a 10 point scale) are provided inside the Discussion Forum for each week. Discussion Forums are only active for each current and relevant learning week, so it is not possible to contribute to the forum once the learning week has come to an end. Failure to participate in the Discussion Assignment by posting in the Discussion Forum and responding to peers as required may result in failure of the course.

                                                                                                                                                            Written Assignments & Assessment Forms
                                                                                                                                                            Most units in this course require that you complete a Written Assignment, which may come in many forms (case study, research paper, etc.). You are required to submit your assignments by the indicated deadlines and, in addition, to peer assess three (3) of your classmates’ assignments according to the instructions found in the Assessment Form, which is provided to you during the following week. During this peer assessment period, you are expected to provide details in the feedback section of the Assessment Form, indicating why you awarded the grade that you did to your peer. Please note that each assignment grade is comprised of a combination of your submission (90%) and your peer assessments (10%). Failure to submit Written Assignments and/or Assessment Forms may result in failure of the course.

                                                                                                                                                            Group Activities
                                                                                                                                                            During this course, you will be required to complete work as part of a small group. Group work is an important component of your coursework, as it allows you to deepen relationships with classmates, and gain a more thorough understanding of the topics presented in this course. Further, group work mimics the business environment in which projects are often conducted in small teams across different departments. You will be randomly assigned to your groups and are expected to work with your teammates throughout the term for all group activities.

                                                                                                                                                            Reflective Portfolio Activities
                                                                                                                                                            Portfolio Activities are tools for self-reflection and evaluation within the context of the course. These activities are designed as a means to document and critically reflect upon your learning process. Activities you develop for this course will be kept in your Research and Practice Portfolio and will be important as you progress towards the final courses in your program, particularly the Advanced Practice and Capstone courses.  Ideally, you will draw from your coursework and experiences, as well as what you’ve learned in other courses, and your own current teaching practice to showcase your overall growth and examine ways in which you can continue to develop and sharpen your research interests and expand your cadre of instructional methods.

                                                                                                                                                            The Research and Practice Portfolio: 
                                                                                                                                                            Throughout the M.Ed. Program, you will be building a portfolio of instructional strategies and materials, and acquiring knowledge and skills for advanced professional practice.  Students begin building their portfolio right from start.  It serves as a repository for research findings and sample units and lessons.  Students use it to archive ideas and resources related to instructional methods, classroom management, and assessment.  The portfolio supports your own self-reflection on changes that demonstrate growth in professional knowledge, skills, and attitudes that is part of the Capstone experience.    The component parts of the Research and Practice Portfolio include:

                                                                                                                                                            • Reflective Portfolio Activities
                                                                                                                                                            • Research
                                                                                                                                                            • Teaching and Learning Resources

                                                                                                                                                            Course Forum
                                                                                                                                                            The Course Forum is the place to raise issues and questions relating to the course. It is regularly monitored by the instructors and is a good place to meet fellow students taking the same course. While it is not required to participate in the Course Forum, it is highly recommended.


                                                                                                                                                            Course Policies:

                                                                                                                                                            Grading Components and Weights
                                                                                                                                                            Each graded component of the course will contribute some percentage to the final grading scale, as indicated here:

                                                                                                                                                            Discussion Assignments  20%
                                                                                                                                                            Written Assignments    30%
                                                                                                                                                            Group Activities  25%
                                                                                                                                                            Reflective Portfolio Activities  25%
                                                                                                                                                            TOTAL 100%


                                                                                                                                                            Grading Scale
                                                                                                                                                            This course will follow the standard 100-point grading scale defined by the University of the People, as indicated here:

                                                                                                                                                            Letter Grade
                                                                                                                                                            Grade Scale Grade Points
                                                                                                                                                            A+ 98-100 4.00
                                                                                                                                                            A 93-97 4.00
                                                                                                                                                            A- 90-92 3.67
                                                                                                                                                            B+ 88-89 3.33
                                                                                                                                                            B 83-87 3.00
                                                                                                                                                            B- 80-82 2.67
                                                                                                                                                            C+ 78-79 2.33
                                                                                                                                                            C 73-77 2.00
                                                                                                                                                            C- 70-72 0.00
                                                                                                                                                            D+ 68-69 0.00
                                                                                                                                                            D 63-67 0.00
                                                                                                                                                            D- 60-62 0.00
                                                                                                                                                            F Under 60 0.00
                                                                                                                                                            CR N/A N/A
                                                                                                                                                            NC N/A N/A
                                                                                                                                                            NF N/A N/A
                                                                                                                                                            W N/A N/A


                                                                                                                                                            Grade Appeal

                                                                                                                                                            If you believe that the final grade you received for a course is erroneous, unjust, or unfair, please contact your course instructor. This must be done within seven days of the posted final grade. For more information on this topic, please review the Grade Appeal Procedure in the University Catalog.

                                                                                                                                                            Participation
                                                                                                                                                            Non-participation is characterized by lack of any assignment submissions, inadequate contributions to the Discussion Forums, and/or lack of peer feedback to Discussion/Written Assignments. Also, please note the following important points about course participation:

                                                                                                                                                            • Assignments must be submitted on or before the specified deadline. A course timeline is provided in the course schedule, and the instructor will specify deadlines for each assignment.
                                                                                                                                                            • Any student showing non-participation for two weeks (consecutive or non-consecutive) is likely to automatically fail the course.
                                                                                                                                                            • Occasionally there may be a legitimate reason for submitting an assignment late. Most of the time, late assignments will not be accepted and there will be no make-up assignments.
                                                                                                                                                            • All students are obligated to inform their instructor in advance of any known absences which may result in their non-participation.

                                                                                                                                                            Academic Honesty and Integrity
                                                                                                                                                            When you submit any work that requires research and writing, it is essential to cite and reference all source material. Failure to properly acknowledge your sources is known as “plagiarism” – which is effectively passing off an individual’s words or ideas as your own. University of the People adheres to a strict policy of academic honesty and integrity. Failure to comply with these guidelines may result in sanctions by the University, including dismissal from the University or course failure. For more information on this topic, please review the Academic Integrity Policy in the University Catalog.

                                                                                                                                                            Any materials cited in this course should be referenced using the style guidelines established by the American Psychological Association (APA). The APA format is widely used in colleges and universities across the world and is one of several styles and citation formats required for publication in professional and academic journals. Purdue University’s Online Writing LAB (OWL) is a free website that provides excellent information and resources for understanding and using the APA format and style. The OWL website can be accessed here: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/purdue_owl.html

                                                                                                                                                            Code of Conduct
                                                                                                                                                            University of the People expects that students conduct themselves in a respectful, collaborative, and honest manner at all times. Harassment, threatening behavior, or deliberate embarrassment of others will not be permitted. Any conduct that interferes with the quality of the educational experience is not allowed and may result in disciplinary action, such as course failure, probation, suspension, or dismissal. For more information on this topic, please review the Code of Conduct Policy in the University Catalog.