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Health Science

CPH 4810 Health Policy and Management

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CPH 4810 Health Policy and Management


Prerequisites: CPH 3610 Human Development in a Global Perspective


Course Description: 

Health Policy today is determined by the goals and actions of health related decisions in a given society. As such, health policy can define the vision for the future by identifying priorities, roles and responsibilities, and affecting change, preferably towards the betterment of health for the population. This course examines the development and the use of health policy with specific emphasis on management, economics of care, the development of health systems and services, and health politics. In understanding constructions of health policy, students explore key aspects of health management, and gain a practical skill set for the integration and implementation of policy at various levels of health provision, care, and leadership.


Required Textbook and Materials: UoPeople courses use open educational resources (OER) and other materials specifically donated to the University with free permissions for educational use. Therefore, students are not required to purchase any textbooks or sign up for any websites that have a cost associated with them. The main required textbooks for this course are listed below, and can be readily accessed using the provided links. There may be additional required/recommended readings, supplemental materials, or other resources and websites necessary for lessons; these will be provided for you in the course's General Information and Forums area, and throughout the term via the weekly course Unit areas and the Learning Guides.

  • This course does not contain a main textbook; resources to all required reading will be provided in the course Learning Guide for each week.

Software Requirements/Installation: No special requirements.


Learning Objectives and Outcomes:

By the end of this course students will be able to:

1. Analyze and examine the utility and effectiveness of health policy initiatives in various system, organizational, and country contexts.

2. Design and propose health policy options to address key concerns that impact the health of a population or sub-population.

3. Assess, revise, and implement managerial practices that support the implementation and action towards proposed or accepted health policies at various levels.


Course Schedule and Topics: This course will cover the following topics in eight learning sessions, with one Unit per week. The Final Exam will take place during Week/Unit 9 (UoPeople time).

Week 1: Unit 1 - Historical, Legal, and Ethical Perspectives on Health Policy

Week 2: Unit 2 - Strategic Planning Process Part I: Assessment, and Situation Analysis Development

Week 3: Unit 3 - Strategic Planning Process Part II: Priority Setting & Planning

Week 4: Unit 4 - Economic and Resources Considerations for Health Policy

Week 5: Unit 5 - Health Policy and the Delivery of Health Services

Week 6: Unit 6 - Research Methods for Health Policy and Management

Week 7: Unit 7 - Overview of Leadership & Management in a Health-Oriented Setting

Week 8: Unit 8 - Evaluation and Assessment of Health Policy & Management Implications

Week 9: Unit 9 - Course Review and Final Exam


Learning Guide: The following is an outline of how this course will be conducted, with suggested best practices for students.

Unit 1: Historical, Legal, and Ethical Perspectives on Health Policy

  • Introduce Yourself in the Course Forum
  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
  • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
  • Take the Self-Quiz

Reading Assignment

Berridge, V. (2008). History matters? History's role in health policy making. Medical History, 52(03), 311-326. doi:10.1017/s0025727300000168. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2448976/pdf/medhis5203-311.pdf.

Burris, S., Wagenaar, A. C., Swanson, J., Ibrahim, J. K., Wood, J., & Mello, M. M. (2010). Making the case for laws that improve health: A framework for public health law research. The Milbank Quarterly88(2), 169–210. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2980343.

Smith-Merry, J., Gillespie, J., & Leeder, S. R. (2007). A pathway to a stronger research culture in health policy. Australia and New Zealand Health Policy, 4(1). Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2104534/

Thomas, S. B. (2001). The color line: Race matters in the elimination of health disparities. American Journal of Public Health,91(7), 1046-1048. doi:10.2105/ajph.91.7.1046. Retrieved from http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.91.7.1046

World Health Organization. (n.d.). Health policy. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/health_policy/en/

            Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015, December 22). The Tuskegee timeline. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm

            World Health Organization. (2003). WHO framework convention on tobacco control. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/fctc/text_download/en/

            Optional Resources

            Baker, A. (2014, February 27). Tuskegee syphilis experiment documentary [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FFWiLKA-91s

            Unit 2: Strategic Planning Process Part I: Assessment, and Situation Analysis Development

            • Peer assess Unit 1 Written Assignment
            • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
            • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
            • Complete an entry in the Learning Journal
            • Take the Self-Quiz

            Reading Assignment


            Murray, C. J., & Lopez, A. D. (1996). Evidence-based health policy---Lessons from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Science274(5288), 740-743. Retrieved from http://www.eurohex.eu/bibliography/pdf/0619262817/Murray_1996_Science.pdf

            World Health Organization. (n.d.). About. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/nationalpolicies/about/en/  

            World Health Organization. (n.d.). Policy process. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/nationalpolicies/processes/en/

            World Health Organization. (n.d.). Engaging stakeholders. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/nationalpolicies/processes/stakeholders/en/

            World Health Organization. (n.d.). Situation analysis and priority setting. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/nationalpolicies/processes/priorities/en/

            Wright, J., Williams, R., & Wilkinson, J. R. (1998). Health needs assessment: Development and importance of health needs assessment. Bmj,316(7140), 1310-1313. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1113037/

                        True Cost. (2013, January 21). List of countries with universal healthcare. Retrieved from https://truecostblog.com/2009/08/09/countries-with-universal-healthcare-by-date/

                        Unit 3: Strategic Planning Process Part II: Priority Setting & Planning

                        • Peer assess Unit 2 Written Assignment
                        • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                        • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
                        • Take the Self-Quiz
                        • Take the Graded Quiz

                        Reading Assignment


                        Enock, K., & Markwell, S. (2009). Organisation and management of health care and health care programmes from a public health perspective. Public Health Textbook. Retrieved from https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/organisation-management/5d-theory-process-strategy-development/stragtegy-communication-implementation

                        Schmidt, J., & Lacock, M. (2009). Understanding the theory and process of strategy development index: Strategy communication and strategy implementation in relation to health care. Health Knowledge.  Retrieved from https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/organisation-management/5d-theory-process-strategy-development/strategic-planning

                        World Health Organization. (n.d.). From vision to operation. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/nationalpolicies/processes/operational/en/

                        World Health Organization. (n.d.). Bringing it all together. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/nationalpolicies/processes/comprehensive/en/

                        Unit 4: Economic and Resources Considerations for Health Policy

                        • Peer assess Unit 3 Written Assignment
                        • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                        • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
                        • Complete an entry in the Learning Journal
                        • Take the Self-Quiz

                        Reading Assignment


                        Dussault, G., & Franceschini, M. C. (2006). Not enough there, too many here: understanding geographical imbalances in the distribution of the health workforce. Human resources for Health4(1), 12. Retrieved from https://human-resources-health.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1478-4491-4-12

                        Kim, J. J., & Goldie, S. J. (2008). Health and economic implications of HPV vaccination in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine359(8), 821-832.  Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa0707052

                        Kluge, E. H. W. (2007). Resource allocation in healthcare: implications of models of medicine as a profession. Medscape General Medicine9(1), 57.  Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1925021/

                        World Health Organization. (2015). The economic and health benefits of tobacco taxation. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/tobacco/publications/economics/post2015tobacco/en/ 

                        Unit 5: Health Policy and the Delivery of Health Services

                        • Peer assess Unit 4 Written Assignment
                        • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                        • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
                        • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
                        • Take the Self-Quiz

                        Reading Assignment


                        Ahmedov, M., Azimov, R., Mutalova, Z., Huseynov, S., Tsoyi, E., & Rechel, B. (2014). Uzbekistan: Health system review. Health systems in Transition, 16(5):1–137.  Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/270370/Uzbekistan-HiT-web.pdf?ua=1
                        • Read the Chapter on Provision of Services p. 71-89

                        Busse, R., & Blümel, M. (2014). Germany: Health system review. Health Systems in Transition, 16(2):1–296. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/107630/1/E85472.pdf?ua=1
                        • Read the Chapter on Health Care Delivery System p. 91-153

                        Chun, C-B., Kim, S-Y., Lee, J-Y., & Lee, S-Y. (2009). Republic of Korea: Health system review. Health Systems in Transition, 11(7):1–184. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/101476/E93762.pdf
                        • Read the Chapter on Provision of Services p. 109-134

                        World Health Organization. (1978). Declaration of Alma-Ata. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/113877/E93944.pdf

                        World Health Organization. (2015). Health service delivery. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/healthsystems/topics/delivery/en/

                        World Health Organization. (2015). Called to return to the declaration of Alma-Ata. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/social_determinants/tools/multimedia/alma_ata/en/

                        Unit 6: Research Methods for Health Policy and Management

                        • Peer assess Unit 5 Written Assignment
                        • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                        • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
                        • Complete an entry in the Learning Journal
                        • Take the Self-Quiz
                        • Take the Graded Quiz

                        Reading Assignment


                        Hanney, S. R., Gonzalez-Block, M. A., Buxton, M. J., & Kogan, M. (2003). The utilisation of health research in policy-making: Concepts, examples and methods of assessment. Health Research Policy and Systems1(1), 2. Retrieved from https://health-policy-systems.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1478-4505-1-2

                        Pope, C., Ziebland, S., & Mays, N. (2000). Analysing qualitative data. BMJ : British Medical Journal320(7227), 114–116. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1117368/

                        World Health Organization. (2015). Evidence-informed policy making: Finding evidence. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/evidence/library/en/

                        World Health Organization.  (2015). Evidence-informed policy making: Assessing evidence. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/evidence/assessing/en/

                         Unit 7: Overview of Leadership & Management in a Health-Oriented Setting

                        • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                        • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
                        • Complete an entry in the Learning Journal
                        • Take the Self-Quiz

                        Reading Assignment


                        Al-Sawai, A. (2013). Leadership of healthcare professionals: Where do we stand? Oman Medical Journal28(4), 285–287.  Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3725246/

                        Walshe, K., & Rundall, T. G. (2001). Evidence-based management: From theory to practice in health care. The Milbank Quarterly79(3), 429–457. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3725246/

                        World Health Organization. (n.d.). Stewardship. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/healthsystems/stewardship/en/

                        World Health Organization. (2007, November). Building leadership and management capacity in health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/management/FrameworkBrochure.pdf?ua=1

                        Unit 8: Evaluation and Assessment of Health Policy & Management Implications

                        • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                        • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
                        • Complete an entry in the Learning Journal
                        • Take the Self-Quiz
                        • Read the Unit 9 Learning Guide carefully for instructions on the Final Exam
                        • Complete and submit the anonymous Course Evaluation

                        Reading Assignment


                        Baum, F., Lawless, A., Delany, T., Macdougall, C., Williams, C., Broderick, D., Wildgoose, D., Harris, E., McDermott, D., Kickbusch, I., Popay, J., & Marmot, M. (2014). Evaluation of health in all policies: Concept, theory andapplication. Health Promotion International29(suppl 1), i130-i142.  Retrieved from http://heapro.oxfordjournals.org/content/29/suppl_1/i130.full.pdf+html

                        Morestin, F. (2012). A framework for analyzing public policies: Practical guide. Centre de collaboration nationalesur les politiques publiques et la santé, Institut national de santé publique Québec. Retreivedfrom http://www.ncchpp.ca/docs/Guide_framework_analyzing_policies_En.pdf

                        World Health Organization. (2004, November 11).  RHN 12th annual conference. Evaluation of health policies and plans. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/en/media-centre/events/events/pre-2008/rhn-12th-annual-conference.-evaluation-of-health-policies-and-plans

                        Unit 9: Course Review and Final Exam

                        • Read the Learning Guide 
                        • Prepare for, take, and submit the Final Exam
                        • The Final Exam will take place during the Thursday and Sunday of Week/Unit 9 (UoPeople time); exact dates, times, and other details will be provided accordingly by your instructor

                        Course Requirements:

                        Discussion Assignments & Response Posts/Ratings
                        Some units in this course require that you complete a Discussion Assignment. You are required to develop and post a substantive response to the Discussion Assignment in the Discussion Forum. A substantive response is one that fully answers the question that has been posed by the instructor. In addition, you must extend the discussion by responding to at least three (3) of your peers’ postings in the Discussion Forum and by rating their posts. Instructions for proper posting and rating (out of a 10 point scale) are provided inside the Discussion Forum for each week. Discussion Forums are only active for each current and relevant learning week, so it is not possible to contribute to the forum once the learning week has come to an end. Failure to participate in the Discussion Assignment by posting in the Discussion Forum and responding to peers as required may result in failure of the course.

                        Written Assignments & Assessment Forms
                        Some units in this course require that you complete a Written Assignment. You are required to submit your assignments by the indicated deadlines and, in addition, to peer assess three (3) of your classmates’ assignments according to the instructions found in the Assessment Form, which is provided to you during the following week. During this peer assessment period, you are expected to provide details in the feedback section of the Assessment Form, indicating why you awarded the grade that you did to your peer. Please note that each assignment grade is comprised of a combination of your submission (90%) and your peer assessments (10%). Failure to submit Written Assignments and/or Assessment Forms may result in failure of the course.

                        Learning Journals
                        Your instructor may choose to assign specific topics and/or relevant questions as a weekly Learning Journal entry for you to complete, but you are still encouraged to also use it to document your activities, record questions/problems you may have encountered, reflect on the learning process, and draft answers for other course assignments. The Learning Journal must be updated on a weekly basis, because its entries will be assessed by your instructor directly as a part of your final grade. The Learning Journal will only be seen by your instructor.

                        Quizzes
                        This course will contain three types of quizzes – the Self-Quiz, the Graded Quiz, and the Review Quiz. These quizzes may contain multiple choice, true/false, or short answer questions. The results of the Self-Quiz will not count towards your final grade. However, it is highly recommended that you complete the Self-Quiz to ensure that you have adequately understood the course materials. Along with the Reading Assignments, the results of the Self-Quiz should be used as part of an iterative learning process, to thoroughly cover and test your understanding of course material. You should use the results of your Self-Quiz as a guide to go back and review relevant sections of the Reading Assignments. Likewise, the Review Quiz will not count towards your final grade, but should also be used to assist you in a comprehensive review and full understanding of all course material, in preparation for your Final Exam. Lastly, the results of the Graded Quiz will count towards your final grade. Specific instructions on the format and content of the Graded Quiz will be provided by your instructor.

                        Final Exam
                        The Final Exam will take place during the Thursday and Sunday of Week/Unit 9, following the completion of eight units of work. The format of the Final Exam is similar to that of the quizzes, and may contain a combination of different question types. You will have one attempt to take the exam, and it will be graded electronically. Specific instructions on how to prepare for and take the exam will be provided during Week/Unit 8.

                        The Final Exam for this course must be done under the supervision of a proctor. Since you already secured your proctor before registering for this course, this is a reminder that you should coordinate with him/her before you take the exam. Please note, you will not be permitted to change proctors during the course. As a reminder, students are required to successfully complete proctored exams spaced throughout their program of study at UoPeople, in order to verify the student’s identity in confirming a degree and diploma upon graduation.

                        Course Forum
                        The Course Forum is the place to raise issues and questions relating to the course. It is regularly monitored by the instructors, and is a good place to meet fellow students taking the same course. While it is not required to participate in the Course Forum, it is highly recommended.


                        Course Policies:

                        Grading Components and Weights
                        Each graded component of the course will contribute some percentage to the final grading scale, as indicated here:

                        Discussion Assignments 10%
                        Written Assignments 20%
                        Learning Journals 15%
                        Two Graded Quizzes (2 @ 12.5%) 25%
                        Final Exam 30%
                        TOTAL 100%


                        Grading Scale
                        This course will follow the standard 100-point grading scale defined by the University of the People, as indicated here:

                        Letter Grade
                        Grade Scale Grade Points
                        A+ 98-100 4.00
                        A 93-97 4.00
                        A- 90-92 3.67
                        B+ 88-89 3.33
                        B 83-87 3.00
                        B- 80-82 2.67
                        C+ 78-79 2.33
                        C 73-77 2.00
                        C- 70-72 1.67
                        D+ 68-69 1.33
                        D 63-67 1.00
                        D- 60-62 0.67
                        F Under 60 0.00


                        Grade Appeal

                        If you believe that the final grade you received for a course is erroneous, unjust, or unfair, please contact your course instructor. This must be done within seven days of the posted final grade. For more information on this topic, please review the Grade Appeal Procedure in the University Catalog.

                        Participation
                        Non-participation is characterized by lack of any assignment submissions, inadequate contributions to the Discussion Forums, and/or lack of peer feedback to Discussion/Written Assignments. Also, please note the following important points about course participation:

                        • Assignments must be submitted on or before the specified deadline. A course timeline is provided in the course schedule, and the instructor will specify deadlines for each assignment.
                        • Any student showing non-participation for two weeks (consecutive or non-consecutive) is likely to automatically fail the course.
                        • Occasionally there may be a legitimate reason for submitting an assignment late. Most of the time, late assignments will not be accepted and there will be no make-up assignments.
                        • All students are obligated to inform their instructor in advance of any known absences which may result in their non-participation.

                        Academic Honesty and Integrity
                        When you submit any work that requires research and writing, it is essential to cite and reference all source material. Failure to properly acknowledge your sources is known as “plagiarism” – which is effectively passing off an individual’s words or ideas as your own. University of the People adheres to a strict policy of academic honesty and integrity. Failure to comply with these guidelines may result in sanctions by the University, including dismissal from the University or course failure. For more information on this topic, please review the Academic Integrity Policy in the University Catalog.

                        Any materials cited in this course should be referenced using the style guidelines established by the American Psychological Association (APA). The APA format is widely used in colleges and universities across the world and is one of several style and citation formats required for publication in professional and academic journals. Purdue University’s Online Writing LAB (OWL) is a free website that provides excellent information and resources for understanding and using the APA format and style. The OWL website can be accessed here: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/purdue_owl.html

                        Code of Conduct
                        University of the People expects that students conduct themselves in a respectful, collaborative, and honest manner at all times. Harassment, threatening behavior, or deliberate embarrassment of others will not be permitted. Any conduct that interferes with the quality of the educational experience is not allowed and may result in disciplinary action, such as course failure, probation, suspension, or dismissal. For more information on this topic, please review the Code of Conduct Policy in the University Catalog.