UoPeople Online Syllabus Repository (OSR)

Master of Education in Advanced Teaching (M.Ed.)

EDUC 5440 Assessment and Evaluation

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EDUC 5440: Assessment and Evaluation


Credits: 3

Prerequisites:  

Recommended:  


Course Description: This course will consider formal and informal classroom assessments and their use for guiding curricular decisions, differentiating instruction, fostering student achievement, and improving teacher performance.  The nature and purpose of classroom, diagnostic, placement, problem-solving, formative and summative assessments will be discussed.  Test construction and teacher-made tests that are authentic and non-discriminatory are addressed, along with the importance of fair, consistent and transparent grading practices; developing and using rubrics and checklists; and providing useful student feedback.  Implications of on-screen testing and the use of e-assessments for tapping higher order thinking will be discussed


Required Textbook and Materials: UoPeople courses use open educational resources (OER) and other materials specifically donated to the University with free permissions for educational use. Therefore, students are not required to purchase any textbooks or sign up for any websites that have a cost associated with them. The main required textbooks for this course are listed below, and can be readily accessed using the provided links. There may be additional required/recommended readings, supplemental materials, or other resources and websites necessary for lessons; these will be provided for you in the course's General Information and Forums area, and throughout the term via the weekly course Unit areas and the Learning Guides.

  • This course does not contain a main textbook; resources to all required reading will be provided in the course Learning Guide for each week.

To access the LIRN resources you must log in to Moodle and access the Library and Information Resource Network (LIRN) located under the Resources link on the Home page. Click on the Alphabetical View tab at the top of the page and scroll down to the database where the resource is located (eBook Central, ERIC, Gale, etc). Copy and paste the title of the resource, into the search bar. A link to the resource will appear. If you have any problems please contact library@uopeople.edu.


Software Requirements/Installation: No special requirements.


Learning Objectives and Outcomes:

By the end of this course students will be able to:

  1. Analyze the difference between assessment and evaluation
  2. Analyze the purpose and use of national(NAEP)and international (PISA, TIMSS) assessments
  3. Analyze the nature and purpose of different types of classroom assessments 
  4. Analyze the role of assessment in guiding curricular decisions, fostering student achievement and differentiating instruction
  5. Analyze the purpose and use of rubrics as a tool for assessment and evaluation

Course Schedule and Topics: This course will cover the following topics in eight learning sessions, with one Unit per week.

Week 1: Unit 1 - Difference between Assessment and Evaluation in Learning

Week 2: Unit 2 - Different Types of Classroom Assessments

Week 3: Unit 3 - The Use and Purpose of Rubrics and Authentic Assessments

Week 4: Unit 4 - The Role of Assessment in Guiding Decisions

Week 5: Unit 5 - Designing Assessments

Week 6: Unit 6 - Online International Assessments and Online Formative Assessments

Week 7: Unit 7 - The Role of Assessment in Improving Teacher Performance

Week 8: Unit 8 - Fair, Non-Discriminatory Classroom Assessments


Learning Guide: The following is an outline of how this course will be conducted, with suggested best practices for students.  The Learning Guides for all units open on the first day of class.  Please review all Learning Guides to access the readings, review assignments, etc. 

Unit 1: Difference between Assessment and Evaluation in Learning

  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
  • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
  • Complete the Reflective Portfolio Assignment

Reading Assignment

1. Lamprianu, I. and Athanasau, J. (2009). A teacher’s guide to classroom assessment. Sense Publishers. Retrieved from:https://www.sensepublishers.com/media/29-a-teachers-guide-to-educational-assessment.pdf 

  • Read pp: 1-14. This article introduces you will find a well-researched global history of assessment. 

2. EasyLMS. (n.d.).  Assessment vs evaluation: what's the difference?  Retrieved from: https://www.onlineassessmenttool.com/knowledge-center/assessment-knowledge-center/assessment-vs-evaluation/item10642

  • This website offers a practical explanation of the difference between assessment and evaluation.

3. Schreurs, J., & Dumbraveanu, R. (2014). A Shift from Teacher Centered to Learner Centered Approach. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP),4(3), 36. doi:10.3991/ijep.v4i3.3395. Retrieved from https://online-journals.org/index.php/i-jep/article/view/3395/3192

  • This article explains the shift from teacher-centered learning to student-centered learning and this fostered the emergence of assessment as we know it today.

4. Huba, M. and Freed, J. (2000). Comparison of teacher-centered and learner-centered paradigms. Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses. Retrieved from: http://www.archive.jfn.ac.lk/OBESCL/MOHE/SCL-articles/Academic-articles/20.Teacher-centered-vs-learner-centered-paradigms.pdf

  • This ‘Comparison of teacher-centered and learner-centered paradigms’ is a quick read of the main aspects of both paradigms.

5. Buskirk-Cohen, A. and Duncan, T. (2011). Exploring learner-centered assessment: a cross-disciplinary approach, International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Volume 23, Number 2, 246-259.  Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ946150.pdf.  

  • In this article, you will find a clear comparison of traditional assessment and learner-centered assessment. 

6. Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education. (2006). Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind.  Retrieved from: https://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/assess/wncp/full_doc.pdf

  • Read the Introduction and Chapter 1. This document presents important facets of assessment; it will make you reflect on the assessment FOR, AS, and OF learning, and it suggests strategies to be applied in the classroom. This document will be used for your group project. 

Unit 2: Different Types of Classroom Assessments

  • Peer assess Unit 1 Written Assignment
  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
  • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
  • Complete the Reflective Portfolio Assignment

Reading Assignment

1. Lamprianu, I. and Athanasau, J. (2009). A teacher’s guide to classroom assessment. Sense Publishers. Retrieved from:
https://www.sensepublishers.com/media/29-a-teachers-guide-to-educational-assessment.pdf

  • Read pp: 15-38
  • In pages 15-38 of ‘A teacher’s guide to classroom assessment, you will find an analysis of the different types of classroom assessments and their uses.

2. Erie, PA., Public Schools (2017). Diagnostic assessment. Retrieved from: https://www.eriesd.org/cms/lib/PA01001942/Centricity/Domain/1917/Types%20of%20Assessments%20information%20sheets.pdf

  • ‘Diagnostic assessment’ is a clear summary of this assessment.

3. Ronan, A. (2015). Every teacher’s guide to assessment. Edudemic. Retrieved from: https://www.moedu-sail.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/CFA-Handouts-for-C-Assessment-Design.pdf

  • ‘Every teacher’s guide to assessment’ is quite a complete overview of classroom assessment.

4. Lynch, M. (2016). Summative assessments, do you know these basics? The Edvocate. Retrieved from: https://www.theedadvocate.org/summative-assessments-know-basics/

  • ‘Summative assessments, do you know these basics?’ is a description of the basic aspects of summative assessments.

5. Lynch, M. (2016). Five major features of summative assessments. The Edvocate. Retrieved from:
https://www.theedadvocate.org/five-major-features-summative-assessments/

  • Five major features of summative assessments’ is a description of the major features of summative assessments.

6. Looney, J. (2011). Integrating formative and summative assessments: progress towards a seamless system. Education Working Papers No. 58. OECD. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED529586.pdf

  • ‘Integrating formative and summative assessments: progress towards a seamless system’ is an overview of the efforts to integrate these assessments. The challenges are, on the one hand, strengthening the classroom-based formative assessments and, on the other hand, improving testing and measurement technologies.

7. Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education (2006). Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind. Retrieved from: https://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/assess/wncp/full_doc.pdf

  • ‘Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind’ presents important facets of assessment; it will make you reflect on the assessment FOR, AS, and OF learning, and it suggests strategies to be applied in the classroom. In this Unit you need to read Chapter 2.

Optional Videos

1. Teachings in Education (2016). Formative assessments: why, when & top 5 examples. Retrieved from:   (6:57)

  • ‘Formative assessments: why, when & top 5 examples’ presents the uses of 5 examples of formative classroom assessments.

2. SanBdoCitySchools (2015). Formative assessments: using feedback to guide instruction. Retrieved from:   (7:06)

  • In ‘Formative assessments: using feedback to guide instruction’ the instructor shows how to use formative assessments and give feedback to students

3. Common Sense Education (2016). 3 tips for great formative assessment. Retrieved from:   (2:16)

  • 3 tips for great formative assessment’ raises two interesting questions: is formative assessment more formative for teachers than for students? If so, how can formative assessment be also formative for students?

4. AERTeamGECDSB (2011). Rethinking assessment. Retrieved from:   (8:33)

  • ‘Rethinking assessment’ is a visual summary of formative (for learning) and summative (of learning) assessments.

Unit 3: The Use and Purpose of Rubrics and Authentic Assessments

  • Peer assess Unit 2 Written Assignment
  • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
  • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
  • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
  • Begin and participate in the Group Activity (Due Unit 7)

Reading Assignment

1. Callison, Daniel. (1998). Authentic Assessment.  School Library Media Activities Monthly 14, no. 5. Retrieved from: http://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/aaslpubsandjournals/slr/edchoice/SLMQ_AuthenticAssessment_InfoPower.pdf

  • ‘Authentic Assessment’ is a thorough explanation of this type of assessment as well as of its uses.

2. Frey, B., Schmitt, V., Allen, J. (2012). Defining authentic classroom assessment. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, Volume 17, Number 2.  Retrieved from: http://pareonline.net/pdf/v17n2.pdf

  • ‘Defining authentic classroom assessment’ is an in-depth literature review of authentic assessment with a rich discussion and recommendations.

3. Indiana University, Bloomington. (n.d.). Authentic Assessment.  Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning (CITL).   Retrieved from: https://citl.indiana.edu/teaching-resources/assessing-student-learning/authentic-assessment/

  • ‘Authentic Assessment’ is a description of the assessment ass it is used in Indiana University. 

    4. Henning, Melissa. (n.d.). Rubrics to the rescue. Teachers First, Thinking Teachers Teaching Thinkers.  Retrieved from: https://www.teachersfirst.com/lessons/rubrics/index.cfm

    • ‘Rubrics to the rescue’ in the Teachers First website offers a very complete guide for the use and purpose of rubrics for teachers.

    5. Chapman, V., Inman, D. (2009). A conundrum: rubrics for creativity/metacognitive development. Educational Horizons, Spring 2009.  Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ849020.pdf

    • ‘A conundrum: rubrics for creativity/metacognitive development’ is an interesting article because it addresses some limitations of rubrics and examines how these can be avoided.

    6. Millis, Barbara. (2016). Using metacognition to promote learning. IDEA Paper #63. Retrieved from: https://www.ideaedu.org/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/IDEA%20Papers/IDEA%20Papers/PaperIDEA_63.pdf

    • ‘Using metacognition to promote learning’ explores how teachers can promote metacognition in their classrooms.

    7. Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education. (2006). Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind.  Retrieved from: https://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/assess/wncp/full_doc.pdf

    • ‘Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind’ presents important facets of assessment; it will make you reflect on the assessment FOR, AS, and OF learning, and it suggests strategies to be applied in the classroom. In this Unit, you need to read Chapter 3, pp 29-39.

    Optional Video

    1. EDUTOPIA. (2011). Keeping assessment relevant and ‘authentic’.  Retrieved from:   (3:52)

    • In ‘Keeping assessment relevant and ‘authentic’’. Ben Mook, the teacher, shows how he introduces an activity in his class that is authentic and that he uses to assess his students.

    Unit 4: The Role of Assessment in Guiding Decisions

    • Peer assess Unit 3 Written Assignment
    • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
    • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
    • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
    • Continue to participate in the Group Activity

    Reading Assignment


    1. Belbase, S. (2011). Philosophical foundations for curriculum decision, a reflective analysis. Pp1-20. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED524740.pdf

    • ‘Philosophical foundations for curriculum decision, a reflective analysis’ reflects on the curriculum from different and thought-provoking perspectives.

    2. MAISA. (n.d. ). Standards, curriculum, instruction, and assessment.  Michigan Association of Intermediate School Administrators.  Retrieved from: http://www.gomaisa.org/projects/career-and-college-readiness/standards/

    • On this website the Michigan Association of Intermediate School Administrators presents its critical alignment of standards, curriculum, instruction and assessment. 

    3. DVUSD. (n.d.). Curriculum, assessment, instruction.  Deer Valley Unified School District, Arizona.  Retrieved from: https://www.dvusd.org/Page/12831#calendar29588/20180627/month

    • ‘Curriculum, assessment, instruction’ at the DVUSD website is an example of how this school district integrates assessment to the Arizona College and Career Ready Standards to provide a clear and consistent framework to prepare children for college and the workforce.

    4. Mikre, Fisseha. (2005). The roles of assessment in curriculum practice and enhancement of learning. Review article. Psychology Department, JU. Pp. 101-113. Retrieved from: https://www.ju.edu.et/ejes/sites/default/files/Role%20of%20assessment.pdf

    • ‘The roles of assessment in curriculum practice and enhancement of learning’ analyzes a) the roles of assessment in operating and experiencing the curriculum,b) the importance of continuous assessment for enhancement of student learning,  c) the roles of feedback and d) comments for curriculum practice and learning enhancement.

    5. Tomlinson, C.A., Moon, T., Imbau, M. (2005). Assessment and student success in a differentiated classroom. Whitepaper. ASCD.  Pp. 1-17.  Retrieved from: http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/siteASCD/publications/assessment-and-di-whitepaper.pdf

    • ‘Assessment and student success in a differentiated classroom’ is an analysis of what is a quality curriculum and of the type of assessments that help support student success using this curriculum

    6. Oberg, Carol. (n.d.).  Guiding classroom instruction through performance assessment. Journal of Case Studies in Accreditation and Assessment. Pp 1-11.   Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1055507.pdf

    • ‘Guiding classroom instruction through performance assessment’ explains how to use performance assessments as pre-assessment, that is, prior to instructional decision making.

    7. Trahan, Laura. (2016). Decision making that matters: 10 ways teachers can impact curricular decisions. Aligned. Retrieved from: https://achievethecore.org/aligned/decision-making-that-matters-a-teachers-perspective/

    • ‘Decision making that matters: 10 ways teachers can impact curricular decisions’ is a blog written about how teachers can personalize their curriculum.

    8. Hansen, Laura. (2018). The role of educators in summative assessment: The life cycle of a question. Aligned.  Retrieved from: https://achievethecore.org/aligned/role-educators-summative-assessment-life-cycle-question/

    • ‘The role of educators in summative assessment: The life cycle of a question’ is a blog providing an inside look at the development of summative assessments.

    9. Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education. (2006). Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind.  Retrieved from: https://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/assess/wncp/full_doc.pdf

    • ‘Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind’ presents important facets of assessment; it will make you reflect on the assessment FOR, AS, and OF learning, and it suggests strategies to be applied in the classroom. In this Unit you need to read Chapter 5, pp 55-65

    Optional Video

    1. Thebercgroup. (2013). Curriculum, instruction, and assessment, oh my!  Retrieved from:   (8:49)

    • ‘Curriculum, instruction, and assessment, oh my!’  is one perspective of how curriculum, instruction, and assessment align and support each other.

    Unit 5: Designing Assessments

    • Peer assess Unit 4 Written Assignment
    • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
    • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
    • Continue to participate in the Group Activity
    • Complete the Reflective Portfolio Assignment

    Reading Assignment


    1. RIDE. (n.d.). Guidance for developing and selecting quality assessments in the elementary classroom, a part of the assessment toolkit.  Rhode Island Department of Education and the National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment.  Retrieved from:  http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Teachers-and-Administrators-Excellent-Educators/Educator-Evaluation/Online-Modules/Quality-Assessments-Elementary.pdf

    • ‘Guidance for developing and selecting quality assessments in the elementary classroom’ is intended to assist teachers in understanding the critical role that assessments play in the classroom.

    2. Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education. (2006). Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind.  Retrieved from: https://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/assess/wncp/full_doc.pdf

    • ‘Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind’ presents important facets of assessment; it will make you reflect on the assessment FOR, AS, and OF learning, and it suggests strategies to be applied in the classroom.
    • In this Unit you need to Chapter 5, ‘Assessment OF Learning, and review figure 2.2 ‘Assessment Tool Kit’, page 17.

    3. Anonymous. (n.d.). Using assessment to drive instruction. Teacher Education.  University of Virginia.  Retrieved from:  http://people.virginia.edu/~cat3y/presentations/ASCD09/RexOrlandoBreakouts/AssessFL.pdf

    • ‘Using assessment to drive instruction’ provides a series of classroom assessment strategies that can be applied ‘as is’ or can inspire teachers to create other assessment strategies.

    4. Flinders University. (n.d.). Principles of good feedback practices. Curriculum and Teaching Resources. Retrieved from: http://www.flinders.edu.au/teaching/teaching-strategies/assessment/feedback/good-feedback.cfm

    • ‘Principles of good feedback practices’ on the Flinders University, Australian website provides a guide to the type of feedback that strengthens the student’s capacity to self-regulate their own performance and contribute to the student’s ability to learn for longer term.

    5. NSW Education Standards Authority. (n.d.). Assessment for, as, of learning. Retrieved from: https://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/support-materials/assessment-for-as-and-of-learning/

    • ‘Assessment for, as, of learning’ on the New South Wales Education Standards Authority, an Australian website, offers clarification and examples of assessments.

    6. Moore, C., Teather, S. (2013). Engaging students in peer review: feedback as learning. Issues in Educational Research, Special Issue, V 23 (2). Pp. 196-210. Retrieved from http://www.iier.org.au/iier23/moore.pdf

    •  ‘Engaging students in peer review: feedback as learning’ analyzes the peer-to-peer feedback experience among university undergraduates.

    7. Wilkins, E., Shin, E., Ainsworth, J. (2009).   The effect of peer feedback practices with elementary education teacher candidates. Teacher Education Quarterly, Spring 2009.  Pp 79-93. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ857477.pdf

    • ‘The effect of peer feedback practices with elementary education teacher candidates’ is an analysis of the effects and benefits of this practice in education teacher candidates.

    8. Goodrich Andrade, Heidi (2000) Using rubrics to promote thinking and learning. Educational Leadership, Volume 57 Number. Retrieved from: http://www.umsl.edu/~wilmarthp/most-03-2012/using-rubrics-to-promote-learning.pdf

    • Using rubrics to promote thinking and learning’ explains the construction and use of Instructional Rubrics to promote thinking and learning.

      Optional Video

      1. Wray, Emily. (n.d.). RISE, a model for meaningful feedback. Queens University, Canada.  Teaching and Learning.  Retrieved from: http://www.queensu.ca/teachingandlearning/modules/assessments/17_s2_09_rise_meaningful_feedback_model.html (5:20)

      • ‘RISE, a model for meaningful feedback’ is a brief presentation of a feedback model designed to promote., higher-order thinking in student-to-student feedback.

      Unit 6: Online International Assessments and Online Formative Assessments

      • Peer assess Unit 5 Written Assignment
      • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
      • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
      • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
      • Continue to participate in the Group Activity
      • Complete the Reflective Portfolio Assignment

      Reading Assignment

      1. IES, NCES. (n.d.). Program for International Students Assessment (PISA).  Retrieved from:   https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/

      • ‘Program for International Students Assessment (PISA)’ is the website for PISA.

      2. The Center for Education Reform. (2013). The Purpose of PISA. Retrieved from: https://www.edreform.com/edspresso-shots/the-purpose-of-pisa/

      • This site explains the purpose of PISA and how it plays in creating policy.

        3. Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PRLS). (n.d.) Overview. IES. NCES. Retrieved from: https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pirls/

        • ‘Overview’ is an overview of the PIRLS

        4. Trends in Mathematical and Science Study (TIMSS) (n.d.) Overview. IES. NCES. Retrieved from: https://nces.ed.gov/timss/

        • ‘Overview’ is an overview of the TIMSS

        5. TIMSS & PIRLS (n.d.) About TIMSS 2019. IEA. Retrieved from: https://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2019/

        • ‘About TIMSS 2019’ is an overview of the planned 2019 TIMSS.

        6. Watts, Andrew(n.d.) International Surveys TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS. Cambridge Assessment, International Education. Retrieved from: http://www.cambridgeinternational.org/images/271193-international-surveys-pisa-timss-pirls.pdf

        • ‘International Surveys TIMSS, PISA, PIRLS’ is a brief overview of the three international assessments.

        7. The Guardian. (2014) OECD and PISA tests are damaging education worldwide-academics. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/may/06/oecd-pisa-tests-damaging-education-academics

        • ‘OECD and PISA tests are damaging education worldwide-academics’ is a letter to the Director of OECD’s PISA from academicians from around the world who express deep concern about the impact of Pisa tests and call for a halt to the next round of testing.

        8. Baird, J., Isaacs, T., Johnson, S., Stobart, G., Yu, G., Sprague, T., Daugherty, R. (2011) Policy effects of PISA. Oxford University Centre for Educational Assessment. Retrieved from: http://oucea.education.ox.ac.uk/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Policy-Effects-of-PISA-OUCEA.pdf

        • ‘Policy effects of PISA’ is an analysis of PISA and an assessment of the PISA results in six countries

        9. Carnoy, Martin (2015) International test score comparisons and educational policy: a review of the critiques. National Education Policy Center (NEPC).  Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED574696.pdf

        • ‘International test score comparisons and educational policy’ is a review of the main critiques that have been made of international tests, as well as the rationales and education policy analyses accompanying these critiques, particularly the policy analyses generation by PISA.

        10. Bennett, R.E., Gitomer, D. (2008) Transforming K-12 assessment: integrating accountability testing, formative assessment, and professional support. Educational Testing Service (ETS).  Pp 1-30.  Retrieved from:  https://www.ets.org/Media/Home/pdf/CBAL_TransformingK12Assessment.pdf

        • ‘Transforming K-12 assessment’ is an analysis of the integration of technology with formative assessments.  Read pp 12-18.

          11. Zalasnick, M. (2017) K12 makes assessment shifts, districts increase formative testing to generate real-time data and reduce high-stakes exams. District Administration. Retrieved from:  https://www.districtadministration.com/article/k12-makes-assessment-shifts

          • ‘K12 makes assessment shifts’ examines the use of adaptive learning software to generate formative assessments and argues that “computer-based formative assessments allow students to keep track of their own test data and, interviewing with educators, monitor their own progress toward learning targets”.

          12. Shute, V., Rahimi, s.  (2017) Review of computer-based assessment for learning in elementary and secondary education.  Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. V. 33. Pp1-19.  Retrieved from: http://myweb.fsu.edu/vshute/pdf/jcal.pdf

          • ‘Review of computer-based assessment for learning in elementary and secondary education’ Is a review of these electronic assessments and of their benefits.

            13. Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education (2006) Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind.  Retrieved from: https://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/assess/wncp/full_doc.pdf

            • ‘Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind’ presents important facets of assessment; it will make you reflect on the assessment FOR, AS, and OF learning, and it suggests strategies to be applied in the classroom.  In this Unit, you need to read Chapter 4.

            Optional Video

            1. OECD (n.d.) How does PISA work? Retrieved from:   (2:45)

            • ‘How does PISA work?’ is a visual explanation of this assessment by OECD

            2. Molinar, M. (2017) The market is booming for digital formative assessments. Education Week.  Retrieved from: https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2017/05/24/market-is-booming-for-digital-formative-assessments.html?print=1 (2:00)

            • ‘The market is booming for digital formative assessments’ reports on how certain school districts in the US are turning to and purchasing digital assessment platforms for their formative assessments.
            3. Scantlebury, T. (2018) Informal assessment tool: formative computer-based test.  Retrieved from:
             (7:13) 

            •  ‘Informal assessment tool: formative computer-based test’ is an overview of the positive and negative aspects of computer-based formative assessments. 

             Unit 7: The Role of Assessment in Improving Teacher Performance

            • Peer assess Unit 6 Written Assignment
            • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
            • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
            • Complete and submit the Written Assignment
            • Complete the Group Activity

            Reading Assignment


            1. Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education (2006) Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind.  Retrieved from: https://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/assess/wncp/full_doc.pdf

            • In this Unit you may need to review Chapter 4, ‘Assessment AS Learning’, pp 41-54, and 
            • Read Chapter 7, ‘Building Capacity for Enhancing Classroom Assessment’pp 75-81. This chapter analyzes how effective professional development occurs in a) daily attention to classroom assessment practices, b) assessment study groups at school, c) assessment learning walks, d) assessment collaboration, etc.  It also argues that the aforementioned professional learning practices require effective leadership in schools and districts.

              2. Marshall, Kim (2018) In praise of assessment (done right). Marshallmemo.   Retrieved from:
              https://marshallmemo.com/articles/Assessment%20March%202018.pdf

              • ‘In praise of assessment (done right)’, the author argues that assessment ‘done right’ helps teachers improve learning in real time.

              3. Angelo, T. and Cross, P. (n.d.) Classroom assessment techniques.  From Classroom Assessment Techniques, A Handbook for College Teachers, 2nd Ed.  Retrieved from: https://www.csn.edu/sites/default/files/u12306/cats_angelo_cross.pdf

              • ‘Classroom assessment techniques’ Is an overview of classroom assessment techniques and of the benefits of these techniques for both students and teachers.

              4. British Columbia Institute of Technology (n.d.) Assessing your teaching effectiveness.  Instructional aid.  Retrieved from:  http://www.northernc.on.ca/leid/docs/ja_teacheffect.pdf

              • ‘Assessing your teaching effectiveness’ is a straightforward guide to help teachers assess their effectiveness.

                5. DuFour, Richard (n.d.)  What is a professional learning community. All Things PLC.   Retrieved from: http://www.allthingsplc.info/files/uploads/DuFourWhatIsAProfessionalLearningCommunity.pdf

                • In ‘What is a professional learning community’ the author the benefits of professional learning communities (PLCs).

                  6. Owen, S. (2014) Teacher professional learning communities: going beyond contrived congeniality toward challenging debate and collegial learning and professional growth. Australian Journal of Adlt Learning. V. 54, #2. Pp 54-77.  Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1033925.pdf

                  • ‘Teacher professional learning communities’ offers valuable insights about nurturing more learning-focused PLCs, with significant benefits for teacher professional growth and ultimately for student learning.

                  7. Bovell, M (2014). Using student assessment to improve teaching.  Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER).  Retrieved from: https://rd.acer.org/article/using-student-assessment-to-improve-teaching

                  • Using student assessment to improve teaching’ in this article the author examines how monitoring the learning progress of students also enables teachers monitor and improve their own teaching.

                  8. Timperley, H. (2009) Using assessment data for improving teaching practice.   Research Conference. Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER).   Retrieved from: https://research.acer.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=research_conference

                  • In ‘Using assessment data for improving teaching practice’ the author argues that teachers can improve their teaching practice by using assessment data.
                  Optional Videos

                    1. Wiliam, Dylan (2014) Teacher reflective practice. Retrieved from:   (3:53)

                    • In ‘Teacher reflective practice’ Dr. Wiliam argues that the teaching profession is the most difficult and the best of professions because you can always improve.

                    2. Classwatch (2012) Self-evaluation and training of teachers. Retrieved from:   (3:13)

                    • 'Self-evaluation and training of teachers’ is about teachers using the software ‘classwatch’ to video their classroom teaching and how much they and their students learned through their self-assessment and reflection.

                    3. William, Kenneth (2014) Using common formative assessments to help teachers reflect on their teaching practice.  Retrieved from:    (8:49)

                    • In ‘Using common formative assessments to help teachers reflect on their teaching practice’, Kenneth William shares his experience of reflecting on this teaching practice with a Professional Learning Community (PLC) at his school.

                    Unit 8: Fair, Non-Discriminatory Classroom Assessments

                    • Peer assess Unit 7 Written Assignment
                    • Read the Learning Guide and Reading Assignments
                    • Participate in the Discussion Assignment (post, comment, and rate in the Discussion Forum)
                    • Complete the Reflective Portfolio Assignment
                    • Complete and submit the anonymous Course Evaluation

                    Reading Assignment

                    1. Ford, D. and Whiting, G. (2006). Under-representation of diverse students in gifted education: recommendations for nondiscriminatory assessment. Gifted Education Press Quarterly, Vol.20.  Retrieved from: http://www.giftededpress.com/GEPQSPRING2006.pdf

                    • ‘Under-representation of diverse students in gifted education: recommendations for non-discriminatory assessment’ is a critique of traditional educational testing and a discussion of alternative assessment, primarily non-verbal measures.

                    2. Ortiz, S. (2002) Best practices in non-discriminatory assessments. Best Practices in School Psychology (pp. 1321-1336). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologist. Retrieved from: http://axwin13.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/63727656/Best%20Practices%20Nondiscriminatory.pdf

                    • ‘Best practices in non-discriminatory assessments’ is an analysis of non-discriminatory assessments from the perspective of a school psychologist.

                      3. Siegel, M., Wisserh, C., Halverson, K. (2008) A framework for equitable assessment. The Science Teacher, Vol. 44.    Retrieved from:  http://people.uncw.edu/kubaskod/nc_teach/class_5_assessment/sounds_like_success_equitable_assessment.pdf

                      • ‘A framework for equitable assessment’, in this article the authors address the fact that ‘teachers have many dilemmas when it comes to assessing a classroom of diverse students. Teachers need to find out what students really know while being fair to all students. They also need to learn how to alter assessments without watering down content’.  In response to this the authors describe ‘The Five Principles of Equitable Assessment’.

                      4. Klenovsky, V. and Gertz, T. (2009) Culture fair assessment: addressing equity issues in the context of primary mathematics teaching and learning. Australian Research Council (ARC). Retrieved from: https://research.acer.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=research_conference

                      • ‘Culture fair assessment: addressing equity issues in the context of primary mathematics teaching and learning’, this article provides the background and context to the important issue of assessment and equity in relation to Indigenous students in Australia.  The authors highlight how teachers need to distinguish the ‘funds of knowledge’ that Indigenous students draw on and how teachers need to adopt culturally responsive pedagogy to open up the curriculum and assessment practice to allow for different ways of knowing and being.

                      5. Colorin Colorado (n.d.) Using informal assessment for English language learners.  Retrieved from: http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/using-informal-assessments-english-language-learners

                      • ‘Using informal assessment for English language learners’ is a review of many forms of informal assessments and about how informal assessments can provide a more well-rounded picture of their skills, abilities, and ongoing progress

                      6. Abedi, J. (2006). Psychometric issues in the ELL assessment and special education eligibility. Teachers College Record, 108(11), 2282–2303. Retrieved from: http://www.ncaase.com/docs/Abedi_TCRE782_2006.pdf

                      •  ‘Psychometric issues in the ELL assessment and special education eligibility’, is an article that discusses the impact of linguistic factors on assessment and the classification of ELL students.  The author states that the major threats to the validity  of classifying ELL students is the indistinct line between ELL students at the lower levels of English proficiency and students with learning disabilities.

                      7. Carjuzaa, J., Ruff, W. (2016) American Indian English language learners: misunderstood and under-served. Cogent Education. Education Policy | Review Article.  Retrieved from: https://scholarworks.montana.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1/12658/Ruff_CE_2016.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

                      • ‘American Indian English language learners: misunderstood and under-served ‘, this article is about the complicated situation of  American Indian schoolchildren who do not necessarily speak their heritage languages; yet, their academic English skills are inadequate to support content mastery. Students whose first language is an American Indian language and who are learning English as a second language (ESL) are easier to identify as ELLs. Students who do not speak a heritage language but have not acquired academic English proficiency are harder to identify. This unique group of ELLs had their English acquisition framed by parents/grandparents or guardians themselves who were ELLs who did not fully acquire Standard English and currently speak and model a non-standard or non-academically proficient variety of English.

                      8. Alrubail, R. (2016) Equity for English-language learners. Education Equity. EDUTOPIA.  Retrieved from: https://www.edutopia.org/blog/equity-for-english-language-learners-rusul-alrubail

                      • ‘Equity for English-language learners’. In this article the author addresses and explains the need for equitable assessment practices.


                      Course Requirements:

                      Discussion Assignments & Response Posts/Ratings
                      Some units in this course require that you complete a Discussion Assignment. You are required to develop and post a substantive response to the Discussion Assignment in the Discussion Forum. A substantive response is one that fully answers the question that has been posed by the instructor. In addition, you must extend the discussion by responding to at least three (3) of your peers’ postings in the Discussion Forum and by rating their posts. Instructions for proper posting and rating (out of a 10 point scale) are provided inside the Discussion Forum for each week. Discussion Forums are only active for each current and relevant learning week, so it is not possible to contribute to the forum once the learning week has come to an end. Failure to participate in the Discussion Assignment by posting in the Discussion Forum and responding to peers as required may result in failure of the course.

                      Written Assignments & Assessment Forms
                      Most units in this course require that you complete a Written Assignment, which may come in many forms (case study, research paper, etc.). You are required to submit your assignments by the indicated deadlines and, in addition, to peer assess three (3) of your classmates’ assignments according to the instructions found in the Assessment Form, which is provided to you during the following week. During this peer assessment period, you are expected to provide details in the feedback section of the Assessment Form, indicating why you awarded the grade that you did to your peer. Please note that each assignment grade is comprised of a combination of your submission (90%) and your peer assessments (10%). Failure to submit Written Assignments and/or Assessment Forms may result in failure of the course.

                      Group Activities
                      During this course, you will be required to complete work as part of a small group. Group work is an important component of your coursework, as it allows you to deepen relationships with classmates, and gain a more thorough understanding of the topics presented in this course. Further, group work mimics the business environment in which projects are often conducted in small teams across different departments. You will be randomly assigned to your groups and are expected to work with your teammates throughout the term for all group activities.

                      Reflective Portfolio Activities
                      Portfolio Activities are tools for self-reflection and evaluation within the context of the course. These activities are designed as a means to document and critically reflect upon your learning process. Activities you develop for this course will be kept in your Research and Practice Portfolio and will be important as you progress towards the final courses in your program, particularly the Advanced Practice and Capstone courses.  Ideally, you will draw from your coursework and experiences, as well as what you’ve learned in other courses, and your own current teaching practice to showcase your overall growth and examine ways in which you can continue to develop and sharpen your research interests and expand your cadre of instructional methods.

                      Research and Practice Portfolio
                      Throughout the M.Ed. Program, you will be building a portfolio of instructional strategies and materials, and acquiring knowledge and skills for advanced professional practice.  Students begin building their portfolio right from start.  It serves as a repository for research findings and sample units and lessons.  Students use it to archive ideas and resources related to instructional methods, classroom management, and assessment.  The portfolio supports your own self-reflection on changes that demonstrate growth in professional knowledge, skills, and attitudes that is part of the Capstone experience.    The component parts of the Research and Practice Portfolio include:

                      • Reflective Portfolio Activities
                      • Research
                      • Teaching and Learning Resources

                      Course Forum
                      The Course Forum is the place to raise issues and questions relating to the course. It is regularly monitored by the instructors and is a good place to meet fellow students taking the same course. While it is not required to participate in the Course Forum, it is highly recommended.

                      Course Policies:

                      Grading Components and Weights
                      Each graded component of the course will contribute some percentage to the final grading scale, as indicated here:

                      Discussion Assignments  20%
                      Written Assignments    30%
                      Group Activity  25%
                      Reflective Portfolio Activities  25%
                      TOTAL 100%


                      Grading Scale
                      This course will follow the standard 100-point grading scale defined by the University of the People, as indicated here:

                      Letter Grade
                      Grade Scale Grade Points
                      A+ 98-100 4.00
                      A 93-97 4.00
                      A- 90-92 3.67
                      B+ 88-89 3.33
                      B 83-87 3.00
                      B- 80-82 2.67
                      C+ 78-79 2.33
                      C 73-77 2.00
                      C- 70-72 0.00
                      D+ 68-69 0.00
                      D 63-67 0.00
                      D- 60-62 0.00
                      F Under 60 0.00
                      CR N/A N/A
                      NC N/A N/A
                      NF N/A N/A
                      W N/A N/A


                      Grade Appeal

                      If you believe that the final grade you received for a course is erroneous, unjust, or unfair, please contact your course instructor. This must be done within seven days of the posted final grade. For more information on this topic, please review the Grade Appeal Procedure in the University Catalog.

                      Participation
                      Non-participation is characterized by lack of any assignment submissions, inadequate contributions to the Discussion Forums, and/or lack of peer feedback to Discussion/Written Assignments. Also, please note the following important points about course participation:

                      • Assignments must be submitted on or before the specified deadline. A course timeline is provided in the course schedule, and the instructor will specify deadlines for each assignment.
                      • Any student showing non-participation for two weeks (consecutive or non-consecutive) is likely to automatically fail the course.
                      • Occasionally there may be a legitimate reason for submitting an assignment late. Most of the time, late assignments will not be accepted and there will be no make-up assignments.
                      • All students are obligated to inform their instructor in advance of any known absences which may result in their non-participation.

                      Academic Honesty and Integrity
                      When you submit any work that requires research and writing, it is essential to cite and reference all source material. Failure to properly acknowledge your sources is known as “plagiarism” – which is effectively passing off an individual’s words or ideas as your own. University of the People adheres to a strict policy of academic honesty and integrity. Failure to comply with these guidelines may result in sanctions by the University, including dismissal from the University or course failure. For more information on this topic, please review the Academic Integrity Policy in the University Catalog.

                      Any materials cited in this course should be referenced using the style guidelines established by the American Psychological Association (APA). The APA format is widely used in colleges and universities across the world and is one of several styles and citation formats required for publication in professional and academic journals. Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab (OWL) is a free website that provides excellent information and resources for understanding and using the APA format and style. The OWL website can be accessed here: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/purdue_owl.html

                      Code of Conduct
                      University of the People expects that students conduct themselves in a respectful, collaborative, and honest manner at all times. Harassment, threatening behavior, or deliberate embarrassment of others will not be permitted. Any conduct that interferes with the quality of the educational experience is not allowed and may result in disciplinary action, such as course failure, probation, suspension, or dismissal. For more information on this topic, please review the Code of Conduct Policy in the University Catalog.